Skip to main content

Biology, Chemical Composition, Cultivation and Applications of Cacti from the Opuntia Genus | Chapter 09 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 5

In this review, we approached various aspects of Opuntia sp. that are a type of forage cacti. These plants stand out for its energy potential and have peculiar morphological and physiological features that  allow  tolerance  for  long  periods  of  drought.  In  addition,  Opuntia  species  has  a  cosmopolitan distribution, found mainly in arid and semi-arid regions. Opuntia sp. presents phenotypic variations related  to  weather  conditions,  like  polyploidy  occurring  in  a  large  number  of  populations  and  high hybridization capacity.  These  plants  have  a  shrub  morphological  characteristic  with  ramifications, variable size, from creeping until arboreal; it can reach up to 4 m high and a series of fleshy stems with, depending on time of year, flowers and fruits. Opuntia sp. have a typical physiology with the photosynthetic process called crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM); stomata close during the day in order to maintain hydration of tissues. The chemical composition of Opuntia sp. varies according to species,  age  of  reticule, and  season.  These  cacti  have  excellent  nutritional  value  with  high  water content (about 90%), digestibility in vitro (about 75%) and vitamin A; in addition, they have organic matter  (67%),  energy  (2,61  Mcal.kg-1),  crude  fiber  (4.3%),  phosphorus  (0.08  to  0.18%),  calcium (4.2%), potassium (2.3%)  and  magnesium (1.4%), but shows low protein  content (about 5%). The proper yield of the crop needs a climate with 400-800 mm annual rainfall, relative humidity above 40% and day/night  temperature  from  25  to  15°C.  The wide  variety  of  applications  demonstrates  the versatility of this plant species, being used in food and feed, agriculture, medicine, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, in water and wastewater treatments, and even as insecticide agent. Opuntia genus comprises about 1500 species and O. ficus indica is the most important as forage and human uses.

Author(s) Details

Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50670-420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Igor Felipe Andrade Costa de Souza
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50670-420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Maria Cláudia Valerio Vicalvi Costa
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50670-420, Recife, Pernambuco,Brazil.

Andréa F. S. Santos
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50670-420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Thiago Henrique Napoleão
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50670-420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50670-420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aast/v5

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Consensus Summit: Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Aims: To issue a consensus statement on Lipids and Cardiovascular Health and the impact of their interrelationship in Nigerian Population. Study Design: Experts from a range of relevant disciplines, deliberated on different aspects of Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population at a Summit. Place and Duration of Study: The Summit was held in April 2016 at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. Methodology: Presentations were made on central themes after which expert participants split into four different groups to consider the questions relevant to different sub themes of the title. Consensus was arrived at, from presentations of groups at plenary. Conclusion: With the increase in the prevalence of NCDs, especially Cardiovascular Disease in Nigeria, and the documented evidence of deleterious effects of lipids, the expert panel called for an urgent need to advocate for the general public and health professionals to make heart-friendly

A Review on Gongronema latifolium, an Extremely Useful Plant with Great Prospects | Chapter 11 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Gongronema latifolium is a plant that has a wide range of nutritional and ethnomedical uses in different tropical African communities. Scientific reports on the chemical composition and bioactivity (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer and allelopathic properties) of the plant material by different authors are discussed in this review. Future prospects of the plant extracts in the areas of herbal formulations, food preservation, alcoholic fermentation and beer production, drug discovery and allelopathy are also highlighted. Author   Details: Olugbenga Morebise Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, All Saints University School of Medicine, Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica. Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/50/403/433-1 View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rabr/v3

An Overview of Ultrasonic Technology and Its Applications in Food Processing, Preservation and Quality Control | Chapter 03 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Ultrasound is one of the emerging technologies that were developed to minimize processing, maximize quality and ensure the safety of food products. In recent years, ultrasound technology has been used as an alternative processing option to conventional thermal approaches. Although Ultrasonication methods have been used for years in research and diagnostics, major advances have been made in the last decade. The applications for which high power ultrasound can be used range from existing processes that are enhanced by the retrofitting of high power ultrasonic technology, to the development of processes up to now not possible with conventional energy sources. The present paper reviews the generation, principle mechanism, properties, process parameters, applications, merits and demerits and future trends of the ultrasound technology in the food processing. Author(s) Details Er. Bogala Madhu Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MP