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Patient Organ Dose Estimation Due to Some Selected Fluoroscopy Procedures Using Kerma Area Product Meter: The Ghananian Experience | Chapter 12 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

Aim: With the acquisition of the Kerma-Area-Product (KAP) meter, patient organ doses were estimated in order to analyze patient dose trends due to fluoroscopy exposure in two fluoroscopy centers. This gave the opportunity to report patient doses due to fluoroscopy exposure using the appropriate dosimetry procedure.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Two fluoroscopy machines located in Greater Accra Region of Ghana in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and Cocoa Clinic. The duration of the study was within six and a half months.

Methodology: 182 adult patients undergoing barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram, hysterosalpingography and urethrogram examinations collectively were investigated (98 men, 84 women, age group 20-81 years). Radiation dose was measured using KAP meter. The KAP readings, patient’s data and other relevant information from the control console were used to estimate organ doses using Monte Carlo base program (PCXMC version 2.0). Qua…

Use of Banana Tree Residues as Pulp for Paper and Combustible | Chapter 11 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

The aim of this work is to characterize banana tree residues and use it in pulping and combustion processes. The soda-anthraquinone pulping of the banana tree residues can be simulated by polynomial models, and then predict the pulp properties (yield, Kappa number, viscosity and brightness) as a function of operating variables (temperature 160 to 180°C, time 40 to 60 min and soda concentration 7.5 to 12.5%) with errors less than 20%. Operating under optimal conditions (160°C, 40 min and 7.5% soda), a pulp with 39.23% yield, 28.59 Kappa number, 48.25% brightness, 1149 ml/g viscosity, 48.0 Nm/g tensile index, 3.80 kN/g burst index and 4.83 mNm2/g tear index was obtained. On the other hand, heating values (17751 kJ/kg), the flame temperature (1300 to 2400°C) and dew point temperature (48 to 54°C), of the different values of excess air used (10 to 50%) in combustion of the banana tree residues were determined and compared with other non-wood lignocellulosic materials. As a consequence, th…

General Relativity Theory Violates the Energy Conservation Law, which is the Fundamental Law of Physics Including the Curved Space-Time Metric | Chapter 10 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

The violation of energy conservation law is a death sentence for the General Relativity Theory (GRT). This paper investigates the correctness of the General Relativity Theory by studying the energy conservation during the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares predictions of energy conservation obtained from the GRT and from the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in the GRT is not correct, because this dependency leads to a prediction of violation of energy conservation while the MTG having a different gravitational mass dependency on velocity predicts correctly the energy conservation.

Author(s) Details
Jaroslav Hynecek Isetex, Inc., 905 Pampa Drive, Allen, TX 75013, USA.
View Book: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/115

Superluminal Speeds in Mezodynamics | Chapter 09 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

In the framework of Fermi theory, nonstationary β -decay is considered. In order to simplify the calculations, the theory omits the accounting of antineutrino and neglects the presence of spin in the particles. The electron is called the mezon. Specifically, the non-stationary process of meson exchange between the neutron and the proton at the final distance from it, which turns proton into a neutron as a result of such exchange, is considered. The calculations are performed both in Schrödinger representation and Heisenberg representation. Schrödinger presentation shows that the meson resulting from the neutron emission can be absorbed by the proton at the final distance from the emitter before the light needs to cover this distance. This quantum effect with the superluminal transmission of information is in dissonance with the classical theory, which does not allow particles of finite mass to possess speeds even close enough to the speed of light in vacuum. Calculations in Heisenberg…

Estimation of the Geophysical Parameters Effect on the Altimetric Measurements for Sea Surface Height Determination | Chapter 08 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

The emergence of satellite altimetry has allowed us to determine the ocean surface with a great precision; it also allows a large contribution for most applications and oceanographic activities. The geometric principle of space altimetry is to measure the range between the satellite and the sea surface.

The objective of this paper is to estimate the geophysical parameters (sea state bias and ocean tide) affecting the altimetric measurements for Jason-1 satellite, using the analytical and empirical models.

The comparison of the estimated and provided values permit to minimize the default values for SSB and improve its estimation, and also improve the ocean tide estimation.

The comparison of obtained results of six (6) years Jason-1 data processing on the western Mediterranean of every parameter with data transmitted in the satellite message permitted us to validate our developed methodological approach. The quality of these results permits the determination of the Western Mediterranean me…

Solar Wind, Earth’s Rotation and Changes in Terrestrial Climate | Chapter 07 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

Solar variability affects Earth climate. It is proposed that this forcing primarily goes via the interaction of the Solar Wind with the Earth’s magnetosphere, rather than via changes in irradiance, which is generally assumed. The cyclic variations in Solar Wind emission generate corresponding changes in the Earth’s rate of rotation (LOD), as recorded by correlations between sunspot numbers and LOD-variations. Variations in Earth’s rotation affect not only the atmospheric circulation but also the ocean circulation. Because the ocean water has a very high heat storing capacity, changes in the ocean circulation will affect regional climate. The redistribution of oceanic water masses also gives rise of irregular changes in sea level over the globe. During the last 6000 years this redistribution of ocean water masses seems to have been the dominate sea level variable. The El Niño/ENSO events contain a part, which represent an interchange of angular momentum between the solid earth (LOD) an…

Power Amplifier- Memory-less Non Linear Modeling | Chapter 06 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

The power amplifier’s nonlinearity broadens the input signal’s bandwidth. This is known as spectral re-growth which is undesirable since it causes interference with adjacent channels. It also causes distortions within the signal bandwidth, which affects the bit error rate at the receiver. Most recent transmission schemes, such as wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) or orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), are especially vulnerable to the nonlinear distortions due to high fluctuations in their power levels. To ensure that linearity is maintained to a high degree, it is necessary to examine the nature of amplifier distortion. Audio amplifier distortion is of concern for many years. The conventional feedback techniques used at audio frequencies are not applicable to many RF amplifiers due to following problems: 1. Stability at high bandwidth. 2. Cost for high gains in RF stages. Memory less or Instantaneous Nonlinear Model assumes that the PA has no memory effects…

Investigating the Neutronics Parameters of NIRR-1 Core Using Venture-PC and Scale 6.1 Codes in the 19.75% Enriched UO2-Zircaloy-4 Material | Chapter 05 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

This study is an investigation on neutronics parameters for Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) core, a low power Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSRs) using VENTURE-PC and SCALE 6.1 codes in the 19.75% enriched uranium dioxide (UO2)-Zircaloy-4 material. The number of active fuel pins used for this analysis is approximate 200 pins, which shows that the fuel pins have been reduced to about 58% when compared with the present Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel (UAl4-Al alloy clad in aluminum) of 347 pins. These reductions in the number of fuel pins have given room for more moderators in the core and hence increase the number of hydrogen available to thermalize the neutron in the potential 19.75% UO2 fuelled core for NIRR-1. The value of the total control rod worth, reactivity worth, and shutdown margin were 7.23 mk, 4.04 mk, and 3.19 mk, respectively. Moreover, the thermal neutrons flux level, peak power density, and maximum neutron density were 1.24 x 1012 ncm-2s-1, 4.31033 W/cc and…

Role of Rose Bengal-Mannitol System for Generation of Electrical Energy in Photo Galvanic Cell | Chapter 04 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

Rose Bengal is used as a photo sensitizer in photo galvanic cell for solar energy conversion and Mannitol is used as an electron donor in this study. The effects of various parameters like pH, light intensity, diffusion length, reductant concentration and dye concentration on the electrical output of the cell is studied. The photo potential and photocurrent generated by this cell are 850 mV and 135 μA, respectively. The current voltage (i–V) characteristic of the cell is also studied and a mechanism for the generation of photocurrent is proposed.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mahesh Chandra Department of Chemistry, Deshbandhu College, University of Delhi, New Dehli-110019, India.
View Book: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/115

Prediction of Concrete Compressive Strength in Buildings that would be Reinforced by Fuzzy Logic | Chapter 03 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

In this study, core samples were taken from column or reinforced wall in order to make reinforcement or restoration. The effect of the element height and volume of voids of these samples to the compressive strength were investigated. C25 type ready to use concrete was used and a column without steel was produced. During the production process, 15 cm reference cube samples were taken from the fresh concrete. After 28 days, 8 cores from reference cubes and 128 samples from column were taken and their compressive strengths were determined. As a result, the average compressive strength of the reference core samples was 36.95 Mpa and according to the height compressive strengths of other samples was ranging between 37.3 and 43.0 Mpa. The ratio of the increasing of the compressive strength changes between 0.95 and 16.37% according to the reference sample. Based on the experimental results, fuzzy Logic method was used for modelling of the experimental results. The paper demonstrates that fuz…

Sums of Powers of Integers and Bernoulli Numbers Clarified | Chapter 02 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

Author(s) Details
Do Tan Si HoChiMinh-city Physical Association, Vietnam and Université libre de Bruxelles and UEM, Belgium.
View Book: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/115

Quantum Oscillations of the Landau-Pekar Polaron in the Dielectric Layers and Bipolaron Formations | Chapter 01 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

The conditions are identified under which the electrostatic image forces at an interface dielectrics result in spatial confinement of the large polarons. This paper presents the theoretical study of large polarons state near the interface of two and three insulators. Action of a combination of external magnetic and electric fields and forces of the electrostatic image on polaron quasi two-dimensional nanostructures is analyzed. It is established that at certain ratios of dielectric constants of two dielectrics there is a fixing of polarons at some equilibrium distance from an interface of dielectrics. Polarons are fixed in the plane of the parallel to plane of the interface, forming a quasi two-dimensional nanolayer. The Bogolyubov method of collective coordinate is used to derive equations describing quantum oscillations of the center of inertia of a polaron near its equilibrium position. A long-range resonant interaction of two oscillators resulting in the appearance of effective at…

Study of Sliding Wear Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Red Mud Composite Coatings on Mild Steel | Book Publisher International

The present investigation aims at evaluating the effect of fly ash, carbon and aluminium addition on coating characteristics of pure red mud. Plasma sprayed coatings composed of red mud and a varying percentage of fly ash, carbon and aluminium on mild steel are considered for the study. Plasma spraying technique is used with varying levels of power namely 6, 9, 12 and 15 kW. Plasma spray is one of the most widely used techniques involved in surface modification by improvement of wear resistance, which may affirm the great versatility and its application to a wide spectrum of materials. Investigations of the coatings focused on tribological properties like sliding wear behaviour, wear morphology, wear mechanism and frictional force. Different coating characteristics like surface morphology, hardness, porosity, thickness, deposition efficiency, bond strength and new phase formation are studied. The sustainability of these coatings towards high temperature at air environment up to 1000°C…

Measuring the Impact of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction with the Moderating Effect of Demographic Factors among Academic Faculty Members of Public Universities in Sri Lanka | Book Publisher International

The purpose of this study was to assess; the impact of factors affecting job satisfaction and the moderating effect of demographic factors among academic faculty members of public universities in Sri Lanka. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the job satisfaction of university faculty in developed countries; however, a little is known about the job satisfaction of academicians in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. The research method employed was the quantitative method that collected data from academics in fifteen state universities in Sri Lanka by means of a structured questionnaire. A representative sample based on the multi stage stratified random sampling method was auctioned, this involved 500 questionnaires being distributed, with 423 questionnaires identified being usable for further analysis. In terms of findings, the median and mean values of the overall job satisfaction of academic staff members of Sri Lankan state universities were found to be 3.95 …

Antibiotics Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Urinary Tract Infection among Honeymoon Women in Iraq | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) is an infection caused by the presence and growth of microorganism anywhere in the urinary tract. This study aims at determining the most common microorganism that causes UTI in honeymoon women, detection the most effective antimicrobial agents that causative agents of UTI and select the best antibiotics for treated UTI. One hundred and thirty specimens were collected from women suspected with UTI {honeymoon (95) and other women (35)} in al-Qassim hospital; during the period (January 2012 to 30th September 2012). The bacterial isolates were identified tested for antibiotics sensitivity test6. Honeymoon women were showing higher rate of UTI than other women in (87 from 95) (91.5%) and (19 from 35) (54.3%) respectively. E. coli (46%) and Staphylococcus aureus (42%) were predominant isolate in honeymoon. Regarding Antibiotics sensitivity test, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus showed highly sensitive to Nitrofurantoin (100%), (94.5%) followed by Amikacin (…

Assessment of Dental Pulp Stem Cell (DPSC) Biomarkers Following Induction with Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP-2) | Chapter 12 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Introduction: Tissue regeneration and biomedical engineering are the goals of modern research that have made tremendous strides in recent years. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been demonstrated to exhibit functional multipotency, differentiating into neurons, adipocytes, and other cell types. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the ability of bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) to induce proliferation and differentiation of DPSC isolates into mineral forming bone cell precursor lineages.

Study Design:
This was a prospective study with the non-randomised experimental design.


Place and Duration of Study:
This study was conducted at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas – School of Dental Medicine between May 2017 and August 2018.


Methodology:
Eight previously isolated dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) isolates were grown in culture and treated with bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) to evaluate any effects on growth, viability or biomarker expression.


Results:
BMP-2 induced significa…

Effect of Lead (Pb) on in vitro Shoots Essential Oil Constituents of Jatropha curcas L. | Chapter 11 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Essential oil chemical constituents of Jatropha curcas were analyzed for the effect of lead (Pb) on in vitro shoots. A total of 36 and 30 compounds obtained from in vitro and Pb treated shoots. The four compounds were α-copaene, β-bourbonene, T-muurolol and lauric acid increased parentage in Pb treated in vitro shoots. Lead treated in vitro shoots resulted in production of 21 new compounds and increased percentage of fatty acid, alkanes and aldehyde.
Author(s) Details

Dr. Ravi Mahalakshmi Plant Tissue Culture and Bioprospecting Laboratory, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Institutional Area, Taramani, Chennai- 600113, India and Meta Procambial Biotech Private Limited, P. Thanneer Pandal Palayam, Peria Semour P.O, Erode- 638 004, Tamil Nadu, India.
Dr. Palanisami Eganathan Plant Tissue Culture and Bioprospecting Laboratory, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Institutional Area, Taramani, Chennai- 600113, India and Meta Procambial Biotech Private Lim…

Control of Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease with Reference to Its Occurrence in Citrus Industry in the World | Chapter 10 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is one of the most severe diseases of citrus plantation all over the world. HLB has destroyed an estimated 60 million citrus trees in Africa and Asia and more than 40 countries were infected by HLB in Africa, Asia and USA, The HLB pathogens are highly fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacteria in the genus Candidatus liberibacter. The isolate from South Africa, Candidatus liberibacter africanus is considered heat-sensitive and only found in Africa regions. The isolate from Asia, Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus is the most severe strain and widespread. This strain is heat-tolerant and can show the disease symptoms in humid, cool and hot temperature (up to 35°C). The isolate from America has been named Candidatus liberibacter americanus and it was detected in Brazil and Florida. Current disease management strategies focus on vector control to avoid infection within the farm or management of infected trees to eliminate source of inoculum. For the Malaysia case, i…

Antidiabetic and Antiinflammatory Activity of Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. | Chapter 09 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

The present study is aimed to investigate the antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activity of crude extracts (methanol and aqueous) of leaves of Pergularia daemia. The acute oral toxicity showed that the crude extracts of P. daemia leaf were safe until 2000 mg/kg body weight and no macroscopical organ abnormalities were observed in acute oral models. The results suggested methanol extract of leaves may contribute to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the management of diabetes. The crude extracts were also assessed for its antiinflammatory activity by in-vitro methods. Out of the two extracts tested, the methanol extract exhibited significant activity. P. daemia extracts exhibited antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activities which may be attributed by the presence of active phytoconstituents.
Author(s) Details

A. Doss, Ph.D. PG & Research Department of Botany, V. O. Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India.
P. S. Tresina, Ph.D. PG & Research Departmen…

Biopreservation of a Cameroonian Indigenous Fermented Milk (Pendidam) Using Biosurfactants | Chapter 08 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Natural compounds with bio-preservative properties are gaining attention of researchers worldwide. It is the case of biosurfactants known as surface active compounds produced by microorganisms which deserved antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was aimed to improve the shelf life of a Cameroonian indigenous fermented milk “pendidam” using biosurfactants derived from that food matrix. Biosurfactants was extracted from pendidam, purified, characterized preliminarly and its in vitro antimicrobial activity against microorganisms isolated from pendidam was assessed. Then, the biosurfactants was applied in pendidam and the microbiological quality of pendidam was followed up during 4 days of preservation at room temperature. The results obtained show that the crude extract of biosurfactants exhibit emulsifying and surface activities which remained stable after heat treatment at 100°C for 15 min, NaCl concentration of 20% and pH values ranging from 2 to 12. Furthermore,…