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Showing posts from January, 2020

Morphological Characterization of Okra (Abelmoschus sp. L.) Germplasm in Ghana | Chapter 12 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Twenty five accessions of okra collected in Ghana were evaluated for phenotypic identity, diversity and quality based on morphological characters. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics were measured and scored as specified by the standard international crop descriptor for okra. A dendrogram was generated for morphological data based on the simple matching coefficient, and four cluster groups were observed. The distribution of the accessions into the groups, based on the morphological traits had no unique geographical relationship. The results of the matrix of similarity among the 25 accessions performed by NTsys pc programme placed two accessions in a tie, suggesting that, they were identical. Eight accessions were placed at above 80% similarity, meaning that, the accession pairs were closely related, and three accessions were 50% similar, which means they matched at half the characters measured. Six pairs of accessions measured were somewhat diverse, which can be exploited b

Mapping Irrigated Area Fragments for Crop Water Use Assessment Using Handheld Spectroradiometer | Chapter 11 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

As climatic change and land use are altering the hydrographic regime, most catchments are progressively becoming drier and farmers are shifting from rainfed agriculture to irrigation practices to enable them to carry out income-generating activities throughout the year. The Ghanaian government has recently been promoting irrigation agricultural practices as the population keeps increasing and the demand for food keeps soaring. In order to keep pace with high demand for food coupled with increasing aridity of the subregion, some farmers resort to informal irrigation practices. In this study, hyperspectral reflectance data of the irrigated crops under informal practices were collected to assess their efficiency of water use. Photochemical reflectance index (PRI), soil-specific nitrogen index (SSN), and water band index (WBI) were computed. The PRI and WBI were significantly correlated, while there was no significant correlation between PRI and SSN. The map showing the probability of w

Application of Tracer Method in Determining Groundwater Recharge: A Case Study at Mymensingh Area, Bangladesh | Chapter 10 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Among various water cycle characteristics, groundwater recharge is the leading hydrologic parameter determining groundwater resources availability and sustainability. Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is important for proper development and management of the resource. Groundwater recharge was estimated under field condition at Mymensingh region of Bangladesh using tracer technique as well as water-balance method. Three years average recharge rate was found as 228.7 mm/year under tracer technique; and 141.7 mm under water balance method (which in terms of percent of rainfall, were 11.2% and 7.16%, respectively). The results of the study will be helpful for planning of sustainable groundwater in the area. Author(s) Details M. H. Ali Agricultural Engineering Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh. M. A. Islam Agricultural Engineering Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202, Ba

Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Coated Sodium Butyrate and/or Synbiotic on Growth Performances, Caecal Fermentation, Intestinal Morphometry and Metabolic Profile of Growing Rabbits | Chapter 09 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aim: The aim of the present experiment was to study the synergistic effects of dietary supplementation with coated slow released sodium butyrate (CM3000 ® ) and a commercial synbiotic (Poultry-Star ® ) on the productive performance and intestinal morphometry of the growing rabbits. Study Design: Laboratory experimental design was used in this study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the experimental rabbitry of Physiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University, Egypt. The s duration of the study persists for 70 days. Methodology: Thirty- two apparently healthy male New Zealand rabbits with average body weight of 544 ± 9 g were divided randomly into four dietary treatments at weaning (28 th day of age). The control group (C) was fed on standard basal diet with no supplementation. Rabbits in the second group (T1) received the same basal diet supplemented with CM3000 ® 500 g/ton feed. Animals in the third group (T2) consumed th

Importance of Foliar Nutrition for Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L.) | Chapter 08 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Generally, the nutrition for the crops may be given as basal, foliar and fertigation methods. But, most of the pulse crop is sensitive to flower dropping, which requires foliar application for flower setting and pod formation. To know the facts the field experiments were conducted to study the influence of different foliar nutrition on pod setting percentage, yield and economics of redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) under irrigated condition at Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur, Tamil Nadu, India in Kharif season of 2016-17. To study the effect of different nutrient sources were applied as foliar application of 2% DAP twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter first spray (T 1 ), Foliar application of TNAU pulse wonder at 5 kg/ha at peak flowering (T 2 ), Foliar application of 0.5% MAP twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter first spray (T 3 ). Foliar application of CCC 200 ppm twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter (T 4 ), and Control (water spray)

Heterosis and Combining Ability in Citrullus mucosospermus (Fursa) for Fruit Traits | Chapter 07 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The aim of this study was to identify parents and promising hybrid combinations for the improvement of Citrullus mucosospermus (Fursa). 12 F 1 hybrids obtained from a 4x4 full diallel crossing along with their parental lines (Bebu (B), Wlêwlê small seeds 1 (Wss1), Wlêwlê small seeds 2 (Wss2) and Wlêwlê small seeds 3 (Wss3)) were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that hybrids having one parent Bebu, expressed significant positive heterosis effect relative to mid-parental values for characters’ fruit weight, fruit diameter and fruit volume. Combined analysis of variances for all investigated traits showed significant (P˂0.001) mean squares of GCA and SCA for all studied traits, indicating the involvement of both additive and non-additive gene actions in the inheritance of these traits. Non-additive gene effects were predominant for all studied traits. Bebu appeared the best general combiner for FMp , FW ,

Effects of Multi-enzyme Feed Additive “Kemzyme” or/and Sodium Bentonite “as a Feed Binder” on Sexual Activity and Some Fertility Parameters of Rabbit Bucks | Chapter 06 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aims: The present study was conducted to clarify the effect of Kemzyme or Bentonite and their mix as feed additives on the main semen characteristics, testicular enzyme markers, plasma testosterone level and fertility indices of bucks. Study Design: Twenty- four mature male New Zealand White bucks were equally divided into four groups (6 in each). The first group was the control group (C) the animals were kept untreated and were fed the basal diet without additives. The second group (K) was supplemented with 0.1% “Kemzyme”, a multi-enzyme blend of Kemin Agrifoods Europe, composed of cellulases, amylases, proteases and lipases. The third group (B) the animals were supplemented with 2% sodium bentonite [1] which purchased from (Morgan for chemicals - Egypt) while the fourth group (KB) was supplemented with 0.1% Kemzyme plus 2% sodium bentonite. Doses of supplemented additives were mixed with the basal ration pellets. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the

Protective Role of Some Feed Additives against Dizocelpine Induced Oxidative Stress in Testes of Rabbit Bucks | Chapter 05 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aims: As optimization of farm animals reproductive performance is a main objective, the present study was, undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of vitamin C, vitamin E and olive pomace against dizocilpine (MK-801) induced oxidative stress and its resultant alterations on antioxidant status, spermiogram, hormonal, enzyme markers and histomorphology of testes of rabbit bucks during first and second month of the experiment. Study Design: Laboratory experimental design was performed. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the experimental rabbitry of Physiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University during the period from January to May 2014 in accordance with the Chinese guidelines for animal welfare and approved by the animal welfare committee of Animal Science College, Zhejiang University. Methodology: Thirty- six male New Zealand White rabbits of about 5-months age and average body weight of 2500 g were randomly s

Soil Reactions, Plant Nutrients and Crop Relationship | Chapter 04 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

This paper centers on the relationship between soil reaction and plant nutrients as they affect crop production. Soil pH affects nearly all physico-chemical and biological activities in the soil. A farmer whose ultimate aim is to minimize input in order to maximize output is expected to have an in-depth knowledge of soil pH especially in tropical region where soil acidity is one of the predominant factors in crop production. Author(s) Details Ayeni, Leye Samuel Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria. View Volume:

Physiological Panel of Some Feed Additives for Turkey Toms | Chapter 03 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Aims: To find the effect of basil and thyme (medicinal plants) and some enzymes (kemzyme and zymogen) as feed additives on some productive performance, some metabolic parameters, integrity and functionality of gastrointestinal tract. Study Design: Forty - eight male turkey toms (strain, Big 6), 3 months old were used with an average body weight 5.5 kg. All turkeys were apparently active and healthy.  The turkey toms were raised on floor covered with dry wood shaving, which was used in all partition, its thickness is about 10-15 cm and renewed every 3 days till the end of the experiment. The house was divided into 8 partitions, each partition was (240 cm X 180 cm) providing enough surface area for each turkey. In each partition there were plastic feeders and drinkers of 20 L capacity, it was provided with identifying card to record all required information. Food and water were available ad-libitum through the period of experiment. The house was well ventilated by natural windows.

Importance of Silicon in Soils and Plants | Chapter 02 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The crust of the earth is largely composed of silicon that is found primarily as silicate minerals, secondary alumino silicates and various forms of silicon dioxide. However, the abundance of silicon in soils is not an indication that sufficient supplies of soluble silicon are available for plant uptake. In this chapter, the outcomes of many years of research conducted on silicon are consolidated to understand the state of knowledge for silicon fertilization guidelines in crop production. The monosilicic acid (H 4 SiO 4 ) is the form of silicon used by plants, which is found both in liquid and adsorbed phases of silicon in soils. Silicon plays a very important role in drought tolerance because silicon fed plants maintains higher leaf water potential. This is assumed to be due to the formation of silica cutical double layer on the epidermis. Author(s) Details Dr. M. Yuvaraj [Ph.D.] Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Ka

Boosting Self-sufficiency in Maize Crop Production in Abia State, South-Eastern Nigeria with Internet of Things (IoT)-Climate Messaging: A Model | Chapter 01 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

The cultivation of Maize round the year is a great challenge to subsistence and mechanized farmers in Abia State owing to the changes in climatic conditions especially precipitation, relative humidity, and temperature during the two traditional seasons, which affect the growth and yield of the cereal crop. This chapter is the first of a two-part study aimed at evolving an internet-based remote monitoring and messaging system for farmers using a case study, the Umueze-Umuchi communities and other connected areas in Osisioma Ngwa Local Government of Abia State. The essence of this project is to enable farmers to remotely monitor vital climatic conditions that are much likely to affect their Maize farms during the dry season. This work presents succinct information on Maize cultivation in the communities with recourse to topography, relief and drainage, climate, soil and vegetation of the area. Data were collected through observation and interview of selected farmers. The vital atmosph

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney and Renal Pelvis: A Review and Update of the Literature | Chapter 06 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 4

Background: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis/kidney (PSCCRP/K) is rare with controversies regarding its histogenesis. Aim: To review the literature. Methods: Various internet data bases were searched. Literature Review: Few cases of PSCCRP/K have been reported with only three cases of PSCC of the renal parenchyma without involvement of renal pelvis. Some PSCCRP/Ks have been associated with renal calculi, chronic infections, vesicoureteric reflux. Some cases had developed many years following successful percutaneous nephrolithotomy; a case was reported many years after curative radiotherapy for testicular tumour. The tumours are initially diagnosed in advanced stages; generally the prognosis has been poor following nephrectomy/nephrouretectomy. Conventional radiology imaging features of the disease are non-specific and cannot differentiate the lesion from other tumours or xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Diagnosis is based upon strict histopathological c

Using GIS to Assess the Contribution of Farming Activities towards Climate Change in the State of Mississippi | Chapter 10 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

The study uses primary data, descriptive statistics, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and correlation analysis to analyze the contributions of farming activities to climate change in Mississippi between 1992 through 2002. This involved the assessment of methane emissions from rice cultivation in the state of Mississippi as well as the relationship between the levels of methane gas concentration and other variables associated with rice production. In highlighting the extent to which rice production activities fuel climate change, the results of the study not only showed greenhouse gas emission related rice production activities to be on the rise, but there is a relationship between methane emissions and rice farming. The GIS analysis also points to a visible concentration of rice production activities associated with methane emissions in the major counties of Bolivia, Sunflower and Washington along the Northwest portion of the state. While this raises the threats of climate chang