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Showing posts from April, 2022

Deep Learning Application for Analyzing of Medical Images | Chapter 11 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

 All of the research papers define, emphasise, and classify one of the constituent elements of deep learning models (DL) used in medical image interpretation, but none of them provide a comprehensive picture of the importance and impact of each ingredient on DL model performance. Deep learning (DL) has advanced at a breakneck pace in medicine, but its applications in medical image interpretation are still evolving. Our paper is unique in that it employs a unified approach to the constituent elements of DL models, such as data, tools used by DL architectures, or specifically constructed DL architecture combinations, and highlights their "key" features for completing tasks in current medical image interpretation applications. Future research could focus on the use of "key" qualities unique to each constituent of DL models, as well as the correct determination of their correlations, with the goal of increasing DL model performance in medical image interpretation. Aut

Diagnosis of the Medical Images Using a Three-Dimensional MRI and CT Reconstruction Algorithm: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial | Chapter 10 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

 MRI and CT can effectively identify prognostic indicators in the cervix, tumour size, parametric invasion, pelvic lateral wall, and lymph node invasion. CT scans have a high density resolution, which allows them to clearly depict organs and soft tissue structures with tiny density changes. Despite the relevance of MRI and CT in the diagnosis of cervical cancer and thyroid cancer, radiologists continue to face challenges due to MRI's technical and interpretative flaws. Furthermore, employing MRI and CT imaging to accurately diagnose and stage thyroid cancer allows for the establishment of an effective treatment strategy. Thyroid volume measurements are required for both the dosimetry of radioactive iodine therapy and the evaluation of the therapeutic impact. The size of the thyroid gland has become a factor in the selection of patients for minimally invasive surgery. Our study is unique in two ways: first, we validate the computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) method in a clinical stud

Cytogenetics in Mental Retardation: An Overview | Chapter 09 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

  It is critical to determine the aetiology of mental retardation in order to limit the risk of recurrence and, in cases where MR is transmissible, to provide prenatal diagnostics and correct genetic counselling. The study emphasises the value of cytogenetic investigations in finding anomalies such as rings and mosaics that may be missed by CMA assays. Mental retardation is described as a lack of mental capacity development and associated behavioural issues. It is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric illness, affecting 2.5-3.0% of the population in all civilised nations. Mental retardation is commonly caused by chromosomal disorders. In the first report from North India, cytogenetic examinations were performed on 143 mentally disturbed persons who were sent to the Guru Nanak Dev University's Centre for Genetic Disorders in Amritsar, India, between 1996 and 2002. These cases were typically referred to as Down syndrome, delayed milestones, mental retardation, and so on. The patients&#

Determining the Effects of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism on Mood during the Period before the Competition in Japanese Ballet Dancers | Chapter 08 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

  The goal is to look at the link between a serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and state-trait anxiety, as well as to see if 5-HTTLPR may be utilised as an objective predictor of mental state in Japanese ballet dancers under stress. There were 25 elite student ballet (Elite) dancers with future promise and 19 professional ballet (Pro) dancers that took part in the competition. On a regular day and one of the stressful days, we gave the subjects two psychological questionnaires (STAI: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; BRUMS: Brunel Mood Scale). The 5-HTTLPR genotype was found in 64.7 percent of the dancers, 35.3 percent in the s/l group, and 0 percent in the l/l group. Only the s/s and s/l genotypes had significant differences in STAI scores before competition. Elite dancers' Trait-Anxiety scores were substantially higher than those of Pro dancers in this study (P0.028). The primary impacts of genotypes on BRUMS scores (P0.035) and Pro/Elite groups (P0.002) were substantial; the 5

Determining the Role of Prenatal Diagnosis in Parents with Sex Chromosomal Aneuploidy: Review Article | Chapter 07 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

 The karyotypes 45,X (Turner syndrome); 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome); 47,XXX; and 47,XYYY are all examples of sex chromosome aneuploidy, which is defined as a numeric aberration of an X or Y chromosome. Individuals with the numbers 47,XXX and 47,XXY are typically viable, however they may have a cytogenetically abnormal child. Turner and Klinefelter syndromes are frequently linked to infertility, however some women have been able to give birth to healthy children, and other kids have been born with chromosomal abnormalities. 0.1 percent of live-born female babies have Triple X syndrome. Only a few cases of congenital abnormalities have the 47,XXX karyotype, hence the majority of these newborn kids have a normal phenotype. Despite the fact that these female patients appear to be mainly viable, there appears to be an increased risk of having a cytogenetically abnormal kid; the magnitude of this risk cannot yet be determined; prenatal diagnosis and genetic study are therefore indicated.

Usefulness of Presepsin Concentrations for Differentiating Sepsis Severity | Chapter 06 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

 The importance of early detection and treatment of sepsis is critical for a better clinical outcome. For the quick diagnosis of sepsis, many sepsis biomarkers are commonly employed. This study looked into the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in distinguishing sepsis severity, as well as their link with the Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. 100 septic patients from two university clinical centres were enrolled in the trial during two time periods. The Sepsis-3 definitions were used to stratify the patients. Biomarkers and the SOFA score were measured four times during the illness. A sandwich ELISA kit was used to measure presepsin. A generalised linear mixed effects model was used to assess changes in biomarker concentrations and SOFA score values during the illness, as well as to quantify differences across severity groups. Multivariate analysis was used to look into the relationship between biomarkers and SOFA s

Study about Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus in Breast Cancer: An Approach towards Molecular Prevalence in a Group of Congolese Patients | Chapter 05 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

 Background: Several studies have revealed a possible link between the aetiology of breast cancer and viral infection since the Band's study in 1990. HPV infection is one of the cancer-causing viruses that has been related to breast cancer cases all over the world. The goal of this study was to seek for HPV DNA in archival paraffin-embedded breast cancer cases at the University Hospital of Brazzaville, and to see if there was a link between viral HPV infections and clinicopathological characteristics. Methods: Forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples were retrospectively collected, with all available data being documented. HPV was detected and genotyped using real-time PCR using GeneXpert technology (Cepheid®, Sunnyvale, USA). The average age of the participants was 51.1 11.4 years (range 22 - 75 years; median was 47). HPV DNA was identified in 6 (15%) of the breast cancer samples in total. HPV-16 was detected in 83.7 percent of all samples, making it the most fr

Determination of Unilateral Posterior Uveitis in a Young Suspected Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritic Male | Chapter 04 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

  The goal of this study was to raise awareness about the significance of regular ophthalmology consultations in instances of JIA, both suspected and confirmed. A 15-year-old girl was sent by the paediatrics department to rule out uveitis in a case of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). He had no problems with his eyes. Since childhood, the patient has had left eye amblyopia and has worn thick spectacles for the past ten years. There had been no eye trauma, operation, or systemic sickness in the past. In both eyes, the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 6/9 in RE and 6/24 in LE, as measured by Snellen's chart. Color vision and the Amslers grid test were also within normal norms. The anterior portion of the body was inspected and confirmed to be normal. The posterior segment of both eyes indicated myopia, with mild vitreous degeneration in the right eye and vitreous debris, inflammatory debris, perivascular sheathing, and snowbanking in the left eye's superotemporal and in

Chemo-Surveillance as a Natural Mechanism to Ensure Perfection of Wound Healing to Avoid Cancer Evolution and to Cure Cancer | Chapter 03 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

  The goal of this research is to look into the relationship between wound healing and cancer. The mechanics of wound healing, as well as the influence of wounds on cancer evolution and treatment, are discussed in this opinion piece. The proliferation and terminal differentiation (TD) of progenitor stem cells are required for wound healing (PSCs). PSCs (pluripotent stem cells) are pluripotent stem cells that can be differentiated into a variety of cells to aid wound healing. Wound healing is affected by compounds implicated in chemo-surveillance and cachexia. Prostaglandins (PGs) are produced in response to a wound, and they serve an important role in promoting the proliferation of PSCs in the early stages of the wound. Chemo-surveillance is used to induce PSC TD at the end of the wound healing process. The success of wound healing is determined on the effectiveness of chemo-surveillance. Because the functionality of chemo-surveillance is usually intact in healthy persons, wounds heal

Determination of Sero-Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Sti Patients | Chapter 02 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

 Sexually transmitted infections are most commonly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (STIs). If undetected and untreated, chlamydial infections can have catastrophic repercussions. Patients that are infected spread the disease to their partners. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of genital Chlamydia and its relationship to bacterial flora in STI patients visiting STI clinics, to identify C. Trachomatis Antigen by Immunochromatography, to detect C. Trachomatis Antibody (IgG) by ELISA, and to look for possible associations between C. Trachomatis and other bacteria. Methods: Blood and genital discharge specimens (Endocervical and Vaginal) were collected from 226 patients using standard techniques. Bacterial flora were isolated and identified using traditional methods. An Immunochromatographic assay (Biomerieux) and an ELISA were used to check for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen and antibody in the patients (Novatech, Germany). Inclusion bodies were fou

Determination of Co-morbidities among Patients with Cataract Surgery: A Case Study in Tertiary Hospital of South India | Chapter 01 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

  Over the course of a year, the researchers wanted to see how common systemic and ocular co-morbidities were among cataract surgery patients at our college and research institute. The descriptive analysis of medical records of 448 cataract patients who received cataract surgery in our college and research institute between July 2015 and June 2016 by a single surgeon was used to conduct the cross-sectional study (GK). The findings of this study show a significant prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) and ocular co-morbidities among cataract surgery patients in our region. This would be beneficial in terms of resource planning and allocation for effective cataract patient treatment. A thorough preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up may help cataract patients achieve better results and a higher quality of life. Author(S) Details Dinu Kumar Arthur Department of Ophthalmology, Aarupadai Veedu Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Kirumampakkam, Pondicherr

A Case Series of Congenital Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with New Associations and Literature Review | Chapter 14 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

  During a seven-year span, we report six cases of autopsy-proven (unrestricted) ACD-MPV from a single institution (January 2007 to January 2013). Congenital Alveolar capillary dysplasia with pulmonary vein misalignment (ACD-MPV) is a rare and fatal cause of infant respiratory failure and severe hypoxia caused by chronic pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). All typical medical treatments, including as high-frequency ventilation (HFV), inspired nitric oxide (iNO), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), are ineffective (ECMO). It is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the FOXF1 gene on chromosome 16q24, according to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). A new study suggests that two more genes, ESRP1 and PLXNB2, can cause (ESRP1) or modify (PLXNB2) the ACDMPV phenotype. The majority of ACD-MPV cases had several non-lethal congenital abnormalities. Pediatric pathologists from two different university hospitals read and confirmed the pathology slides. An relationship with pre

Determination of Epidemiological Markers and Seroprevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Female Sti Attendees | Chapter 13 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

  The goal of this study was to establish chlamydia trachomatis seroprevalence and its relationship to several epidemiological variables. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Chlamydial infections that go undiagnosed and untreated might have long-term repercussions. Infected patients are a source of infection for their partners. The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiological symptoms and seroprevalence of genital Chlamydia in female STI patients who visited STI clinics. In 226 clinically suspected cases of Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) patients attending a STI clinic, the seroprevalence of chlamydia trachomatis, as well as age, marital status, history of sexual contact, and contraceptive use, were assessed. Patients were tested for the presence of chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibodies using an ELISA (Novatech, Germany) assay. The seroprevalence of chlamydia trachomatis IgG was found to be 55.66 percent by ELI

Assessing the Correlation between Survivin and Bcl-2 Expression to Pathological Malignancy and Anti-apoptotic Property in Glial Cell Tumors | Chapter 12 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 6

  Apoptosis is controlled by a variety of variables whose mechanisms are unknown. Bcl-2 is a well-known apoptosis mediator. Survivin is also a new noble family inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that controls apoptosis in a different way than the Bcl-2 family. Survivin and Bcl-2 are found in a variety of human malignancies. The goal of the study was to look at the expression of survivin and Bcl-2 in glial cell tumours and see if there was a link between pathological malignancy and anti-apoptotic characteristics. This study looked at 58 patients who had glial cell tumours that had been surgically removed. The World Health Organization classification was used to classify the pathogenic kinds of glial cell tumours (WHO). Survivin was found in 60.3 percent of glioma samples, whereas Bcl-2 was found in 43.1 percent. Survivin and Bcl-2 were found to be co-expressed in 25.9% of tumour samples. Survivin expression was linked with pathological grade in astrocytic tumours (P 0.05), but not wit