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Showing posts from October, 2019

Corporate Governance in Tanzania: Emerging Regulatory and Governance Issues in the Financial Sector | Book Publisher International

The emergence of corporate governance has tremendously improved the business working environment since its inception in the world, and in Tanzania, in particular. The dramatic change of social and economic environment is the fruits of the development of corporate governance around the world. The concept of corporate governance has attracted researchers’ attention over the last twenty years due to several factors which include the widespread of capitalism and the rapid speed of privatization; the growth of companies; deregulation, and the integration of capital markets and globalization; pension fund reforms and the growth of private savings; shareholder activism. Among the areas in the Tanzanian financial markets whose corporate governance contribution cannot be left unnoticed is the financial sector. During the last decade financial sector in Tanzania, particularly banking sector, has witnessed rapid changes in the socio- economic and technological settings which impacted on economi

Nanoparticles as New Antimicrobial Agents | Book Publisher International

Antimicrobials are the synthetic molecules obtained from natural sources are widely used against pathogenic microbes. The improper use of these antimicrobial agents has resulted in multi-drug resistance property among various pathogens and is a great threat to the global population. Also, the spread of these resistant microbes is a great challenge to the medical practitioners. The use of novel technologies to replace conventional antimicrobials can curtain antimicrobial resistance. Nanotechnology driven innovations could give a hope for the patients as well as physicians in solving the problem of drug resistance. The medical and veterinary application of nanomaterials which are in the size of atomic or molecular scale has been tremendously increased. It has been well known that metallic compounds have high antimicrobial/bactericidal activity. Various nanomaterials have been documented against several bacteria. The development of an effective nanocomposite requires a profound knowled

Effectiveness and Properties of Hydrazide Drugs that Inhibit Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis | Chapter 12 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

Aims: To examine the properties of hydrazide compounds shown to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To identify properties that affect efficiency of bacterial inhibition. Study Design: Utilizing data from previous studies of compounds that inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis, then statistical and pattern recognition methods are applied to identify interrelationships. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Durham Science Center, University of Nebraska at Omaha, from January 2016 to July 2016. Methodology: Interrelationships of pharmacological properties were identified by use of various pattern recognition techniques, such as hierarchical cluster analysis and path analysis. Molecular properties and descriptors for all compounds were determined, with additional characteristics such as structure scaffolding and functional group position was accomplished. Statistical analysis, including Pearson r correlation, Mann-Whitney test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis,

Prodrugs Design | Chapter 11 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

Prodrug design can be used in the following cases: improving active drug solubility and consequently bioavailability, increasing permeability and absorption and modifying the drug’s distribution profile. In the prodrug design, a computational approach consisting of calculations using Molecular Orbital (MO) and Molecular Mechanics (MM) methods and correlations between experimental and calculated values can be utilized. Author(s) Details Professor Rafik Karaman Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 20002, Jerusalem, Palestine and Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viadell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy. Read full article: View Volume:

Role and Effectiveness of Simulation-based Training in Raising Family Medicine Residents’ Clinical Resuscitation and Critical Care Skills | Chapter 10 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

Background: Family medicine (FM) physicians are bound to providing healthcare services at a variety of clinical and community settings. They should be equipped to competently handle health emergencies in a multitude of professional procedures. Medical education on patients often raises safety issues; simulation-based medical education (SBME) was a solution enabling education in a risk free environment. Aim: To analyze the impact of a SBME on Family medicine residents’ performance in critical resuscitation procedures. Methods: A systematic review of published articles between 1996 and 2016 was conducted. Systematized literature search through ranked search engines was done. All original research articles on SBME published between 1997 and 2012 were examined. Results: The analysis included 6 relevant studies selected. The studies’ venues included either academic or healthcare settings in Netherlands, Switzerland; Greece, and Canada. The studies’ populations were

Spectrum of Thyroid Diseases in Makurdi, Benue State of Nigeria: A Review of 94 Consecutive Cases | Chapter 09 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

This study aims to review the spectrum of thyroid diseases in Makurdi, Benue State of Nigeria through a histopathological survey. It is a retrospective study covering 1 st January, 2005 to 31 st December, 2016. Ninety four (94) consecutive cases of thyroidectomy specimens collected from Holy Trinity Specialist Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria a private hospital and Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria between January 1 st , 2005 to December 31 st , 2016 were examined histologically and analyzed with regards to age and sex. There were 7 male specimens as against 87 female specimens giving a male: female ratio of 1:12.43. Nodular colloid goiter was the commonest histological lesion accounting for 72%, followed by thyroid carcinoma which accounted for 11.66%, adenoma 10.60%. Thyroiditis, 5.30% was the fourth commonest pathology and thyroglossal cyst/duct accounted for 1.06%. Follicular carcinoma was the commonest malignancy seen accounting for 7.51% of all speci

TNF-α Inhibitor Treatment for Crohn’s Disease: Comparative Review of Post Therapy Malignancy between Infliximab and Adalimumab | Chapter 08 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

The association between chronic inflammatory disease and cancer has been well established through years of research. In corollary, progressive resistance to chimeric monoclonal antibodies has been reported in literature. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the overall trend of the chimeric monoclonal antibody (Infliximab) failure compared with human monoclonal antibody (Adalimumab). It was opined that this failure may result in subclinical yet cancer-inducing inflammation that could be measurable in patient populations undergoing the therapy by examining cancer prevalence. An overall trend of increased incidence of new malignancy in patient populations on Infliximab compared with Adalimumab was confirmed from the literature reviewed. There was also a significant trend of developing Gastrointestinal (GI) related cancer in patients on Infliximab, which corresponds with the majority of the progression process in Crohn’s disease. It was opined that future observations in

The Question of Prodrug Naming | Chapter 07 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

Prodrug is a term used to define a pharmacologically inactive chemical entity that can be used to temporarily alter the physicochemical properties of a drug to increase its usefulness and decrease its associated toxicity. According to the definition, the inactive prodrug converts to its active parent drug and a non-toxic linker upon exposure to a physiological environment. Albert stated in his Selective Toxicity book, that the term prodrug is incorrect and should be replaced with the term predug. He apologized for having invented the term, however, now it is too widely used to alter. Author(s) Details Professor Rafik Karaman Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 20002, Jerusalem, Palestine and Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viadell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy. Read full article: View Volume:

Pharmacological Profile and Indications of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants: Updated Review | Chapter 06 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants have been approved since 2008 for the prevention of systemic embolism and stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation with prior stroke, transient ischemic attack, or CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score ≥2. According to the latest guidelines, if CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score ≥2 for all male patients or if CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score ≥3 for all female patients, oral anticoagulants are recommended, and considering shared decision between doctor and patient. However, they are contraindicated in patients with mechanical prosthetic valve and in patients with moderate-to-severe mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation. They have also been approved for prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, was the first to be approved, followed by the factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and in 2015, edoxaban. They have advantages such as the use of fixed-dose, with infrequent drug intera

Prodrugs Designed by DFT and Molecular Mechanics Methods | Chapter 05 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

The accumulation of knowledge on intramolecular processes, enzymes and transporters along with the vast progress in molecular revolution have accelerated the search for prodrugs having the capability to replace their corresponding current marketed drugs and to provide therapeutics with better pharmacological profiles. Utilizing the different available computational methods has led to the design and synthesis of a variety of prodrugs to replace their corresponding parent drugs. It has been proven that prodrugs can significantly improve the life quality of patients. The directed enzyme prodrug therapy (DEPT) approach to employ the design of artificial enzymes to activate prodrugs at specific sites along with use of intramolecular processes to design prodrugs are the most attractive strategies to obtain more efficient therapeutics. Author(s) Details Professor Rafik Karaman Department  of  Bioorganic  Chemistry,  Faculty  of  Pharmacy,  Al-Quds  University,  P.O.Box  20

In vitro and ex vivo Studies of Nonionic Surfactant Vesicles Using 23 Factorial Design: Metoprolol Tartrate Used as Model Drug | Chapter 04 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

The purpose of this study was to formulate and investigate metoprolol tartrate (MT) loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles using 2 3 factorial designs. Preparation of niosomal drug delivery of MT increased its bioavailability which led to being better therapeutic effects, reduced the frequency of dosing and decreased side effects of hypertensive patients. Ether injection method (EIM) and thin film hydration method (TFHM) were used for the preparation of all formulations as per full factorial design to study the effect of two independent variables X1 (amount of span-60), and X2 (amount of cholesterol) on three dependent variable Y1 (percent drug entrapment efficiency), Y2 (percent drug content) and Y3 (percent cumulative drug release) respectively. The relation between the dependent and independent variables was drawn out from the mathematical equation and response surface methodology (RSM). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Microscopic observation confirmed that all par

The Future of Prodrugs Design | Chapter 03 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

When knowledge fails to provide answers to important questions such as how to improve the bioavailability of vital medications, “Imagination is more important than knowledge,” as Albert Einstein once said. Ingenuity in the design of effective prodrugs has been lacking in quantity and quality. The reasons behind the low quality of ingenuity could be related to the fact that medicinal chemists have expertise in organic and organometalic chemistry not in biochemistry and biology. On the other hand, pharmaceutical chemists, biologists and biochemists do not have the expertise to make sophisticated chemical devices. Therefore, in order for a prodrug strategy to work, a team consisting of all this expertise is necessary. Author(s) Details Professor Rafik Karaman Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 20002, Jerusalem, Palestine and Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viadell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy.

Perceptions of the Traditional Medical Practitioners of North-Western Nigeria on Malaria Treatment and the Potential Antiplasmodial Properties of Plumeria rubra Stem-Bark | Chapter 02 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

Aims: The apparent lack of scientific proof of efficacies claimed by the traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) (locally known as Magori/’Yan-ganye, in Hausa language) of North-Western Nigeria with respect to malaria and the many drawbacks of the current antimalarial drugs stimulated this study. The study was carried out to evaluate the perception of the TMPs on the causes, diagnosis and treatment of malaria and evaluate the potential antiplasmodial properties (in-vivo in Albino mice) of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocynaceae) commonly used in traditional treatment of malaria in North-Western Nigeria. The study was aimed at providing scientific basis for use of traditional health knowledge and use of medicinal plant resources in the treatment of malaria. Study Design: Using an ethno-medical survey, information was obtained from the TMPs relating to identification of plants, their medicinal uses and the mode of preparations of remedies on traditional treatment of malaria.

Drug Delivery Approaches | Chapter 01 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

This review discusses the different biological barriers that affect the delivery of therapeutic agents through membranes, such as intestinal mucosa, Brain Blood Barrier (BBB), and mediators of transport such as efflux transporters and the approaches for overcoming such barriers. The approaches illustrated in this review include: utilizing natural occurring transporters to deliver drugs specifically to their targets, nucleoside analogues delivery, CYP-activated prodrugs that target drugs to the liver, modification of passive diffusion by efflux pumps, intestinal transporters such as PEPT1 and GLUT1, Carrier Mediated Transport (CMT) systems for transporting nutrients, vitamins or hormones into the central nervous system, tissue selective drug delivery, administration of an exogenous enzyme to reach the tumor site which is followed by systemic administration of non-toxic prodrugs (ADEPT, GDEPT and VDEPT), enzymes involve in the bioconversion of ester-based prodrugs for activation (hydr

Computational Analysis of Evolutionary Relationship of a Family of Cold Shock Proteins in Ten Mammalian Species | Chapter 11 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 2

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the evolutionary relationship of a family of cold shock proteins (CSP) in ten mammalian species using bioinformatics tools and softwares such as Genbank, FASTA, BLAST and MEGA 5. Sample: Twenty protein sequences of both RBM3 and CIRP proteins of some selected mammalian species were downloaded from NCBI database. Study Design: Computational analysis to evaluate the evolutionary relationship of the CSP was carried out by estimating the phylogenic relationship of CSP in the different mammalian species studied. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Calabar. Methodology : The molecular evolution and genetic analysis, version 5 (MEGA 5) software was used to determine the evolutionary relationship of both CIRP and RBM3 in the ten mammalian species studied by constructing phylogenic tree using the amino acid sequences of protein retrieved from NCBI.