Skip to main content

In vitro and ex vivo Studies of Nonionic Surfactant Vesicles Using 23 Factorial Design: Metoprolol Tartrate Used as Model Drug | Chapter 04 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2

The purpose of this study was to formulate and investigate metoprolol tartrate (MT) loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles using 23 factorial designs. Preparation of niosomal drug delivery of MT increased its bioavailability which led to being better therapeutic effects, reduced the frequency of dosing and decreased side effects of hypertensive patients. Ether injection method (EIM) and thin film hydration method (TFHM) were used for the preparation of all formulations as per full factorial design to study the effect of two independent variables X1 (amount of span-60), and X2 (amount of cholesterol) on three dependent variable Y1 (percent drug entrapment efficiency), Y2 (percent drug content) and Y3 (percent cumulative drug release) respectively. The relation between the dependent and independent variables was drawn out from the mathematical equation and response surface methodology (RSM). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Microscopic observation confirmed that all particles were uniform in size and shape. The particle size of niosomes measured by SEM was between 3 μm to 4.5 μm that given the evidence of large uni-lamellar vesicles formed by EIM and TFHM. The percent drug entrapment efficiency was found to be highest for formulations MTEIM-8 and MTTFHM-8 with values 97.11% and 95.56% respectively. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for 8 hours at 100 rpm and maintained at 37 ± 0.5°C according to USP-II paddle method and absorbance was taken at 226 nm. The probable drug release mechanism may be fickian (class I) diffusion as the correlation coefficient (𝑅2) best fitted with zero order and release exponent (n) was less than 0.43.  The FTIR studies have been done to confirm no interaction along with drug and polymer. In vitro and ex vivo comparative studies showed that non-ionic surfactant vesicle had controlled the release of drug for a longer period. Finally, it can be concluded that non-ionic surfactant vesicle could be an effective for delivery of MT with increased bioavailability.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Irin Dewan
Pharmaceutical Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, 74/A, Green Road, Farmgate, Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. S. M. Ashraful Islam
Pharmaceutical Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, 74/A, Green Road, Farmgate, Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. Swarnali Islam Khandaker
Pharmaceutical Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, 74/A, Green Road, Farmgate, Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh.

Waheeda Nasreen
Pharmaceutical Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, 74/A, Green Road, Farmgate, Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh.

Ohinul Hoque
Pharmaceutical Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, 74/A, Green Road, Farmgate, Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh.

View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mapr/v2

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Empowerment and Leader Member Exchange towards Organizational Citizenship Behavior Readiness among Government Workforce in Malaysia | Book Publisher International

  State agencies are among the most significant entities that represent the public's needs, and their programmes are essential to a state's and the nation's economic growth and development. State agencies have been rife by public concerns for years, as demonstrated by the Public Complaints Bureau, as problems of inefficiency in service quality and delivery have yet to meet the public's standards. With the support of 15 employees from state agencies on Malaysia's east coast, this study aims to achieve three targets. The first and second objectives are to investigate the ties between leader-member exchange (LMX) and OCB empowerment. The final aim is to define the most significant factors that affect OCB willingness. A total of 288 people took part in the survey, which was conducted using a cluster sampling process. The survey items had achieved the necessary reliability, according to the pilot test results, and some sub-dimensions were renamed after factor analysis.

Re-asserting Cultural Perspectives: Old People and New Ideas in Bole Butake’s Lake God and The Survivors and Sankie Maimo’s Succession in Sarkov | Chapter 10 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 2

African cultures have undergone transformations from the colonial period to the present, often to the detriment of its cultural evolution and within the larger global community. As it were, colonial education subordinated African communalism and created in its place an anti-African spirit evident in the assimilation of western values. This did not only end up in a kind of cultural betrayal, but also posed as a serious threat to the dignity and identity of the people. Those who fall prey to this kind of cultural imperialism are the young people who are often irrationally carried away by western fashion and modes that they tend to neglect and/or forget their cultural ways of life as they join the race of “progress.” This situation has given rise to a conscious effort by creative writers to re-assert and protect African values while at the same time liberating themselves from the longstanding western effort at suppressing, controlling and dominating their thoughts particularly through n

The Utilization of Agro-Waste: A Nanobiotechnology Point of View | Chapter 10 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Aims: To review the utilization of agro-waste in the eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles and their biomedical, catalytic and industrial applications. Study Design: A review. Place and Duration of Study: This review was carried out in the interim of three weeks exploiting all relevant data, literature and publications where necessary. Methodology: Profound gathering of literatures/publications and reviews were employed with all carefulness and professional courtesy; enough useful information were gathered over time. The introduction emphasizes the dawn of science and technology, when great ideas were still latent later leading to the advent of history changing innovations like the completion of human genome and then the birth of nanotechnology. Although, nanotechnology had been known decades been popularized by Richard Feynman in his talks in the year 1959; and in this present dispensation, nanotechnology has been a solution to many intricate challenges/ t