Skip to main content

Cosmic Vacuum Energy Determining the Space-Time Geometry of the Empty Universe | Chapter 8 | Advances and Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 2

Different from energies constituted by baryons or photons both of which are expressed as energiesper particle, vacuum energy by its nature represents a ”volume energy”, i.e. an energy represented bythe sheer space volume, however, not simply reacting to the temporal change of this space volume,but rather in a non-evident way which we here try to fix using thermodynamic principles. Vacuumenergy is interpreted as a phenomenon of a polarization of empty space by real cosmic matter withthe consequence that the prevailing vacuum energy should depend on the cosmic matter density. Wetry to interpret vacuum energy as a form of a heat capacity of cosmic volumes and study by the use ofthermodynamical principles how the heat content of cosmic volumes should change with the changeof the volumes themselves. In the present days of modern cosmology, it is assumed that the mainingredient to cosmic energy presently is vacuum energy with an energy densityεvacthat is constantover the cosmic evolution. This paper shows that this assumption of constant vacuum energy densityis unphysical, since it conflicts with the requirements of cosmic thermodynamics. The study startsfrom the total vacuum energy including the negatively valued gravitational binding energy and showsthat cosmic thermodynamics then requires the cosmic vacuum energy density which can only varywith cosmic scaleR=R(t)according toεvacRwith only two values ofνbeing allowed, namelyν1= 2andν2= 5/2. The study then discusses these two remaining solutions and find, whenrequiring a universe with a constant total energy, that the only allowed power index isν1= 2. Theconsequences of this scaling ofεvacare discussed and the results for a cosmic scale evolution of aquasi-empty universe are presented.

Biography of author(s)

Michael Heyl
Deutsches Zentrum f ̈ur Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR), K ̈onigswinterer Str.  522 - 524, 53227 Bonn,Germany.

FAHR, Hans-Jrg Helmuth
Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Section Astrophysics, University of Bonn, Germany.


Comments

Popular posts from this blog

A Brief Study of Middleware Technologies: Programming Applications and Management Systems | Chapter 15 | Novel Research Aspects in Mathematical and Computer Science Vol. 1

  Many platforms, services, applications, hardware, and operating systems are connected through the middleware layer. Because the middleware layer abstracts much low-level complexity and makes applications and software systems portable, it allows disparate systems to interface and function together in harmony. Middleware technologies enable software engineers to swiftly construct software systems and applications, allowing developers to focus on more important tasks. This chapter examines several types of middleware systems and discusses middleware capabilities, middleware operation, middleware's function in cloud-based systems, and the best middleware platforms to use. Middleware systems are widely utilised and can be found in practically any software system or application. Middleware programmes provide as a link between many sorts of systems and protocols. They serve as a mechanism for various systems. To successfully exchange information, it runs on a variety of operating system

A Prospective Study about Safety and Efficacy of Perioperative Lidocaine Infusion | Chapter 09 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

 Opioids cause clinically significant side effects such as respiratory depression, immunosuppression, muscle rigidity, negative inotropism, nausea, vomiting, hyperalgesia, urine retention, postoperative ileus, and drowsiness. Perioperative opioids are a major contributor to the United States' and other countries' opioid epidemics. Non-opioid analgesics, particularly lidocaine, are becoming more common for perioperative use as a result of this. A total of 185 adult patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group I (105 patients) [fentanyl group] or group ii (80 patients) [opioid-free anaesthesia group]. Lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h infusion intraoperatively, and 1.5-2 mg/kg/h infusion for 2-8 hours postoperatively were given to patients in both groups at anaesthetic induction. Intraoperatively, both groups received analgesic adjuvants such as diclofenac 75 mg, paracetamol 1 gm, and mgso4 30-50 mg/kg. If the mean arterial pressure (map)

Scientific values of ECA Ligation | Chapter 06 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

  Previously, carotid artery ligation was done as an emergency procedure to stop severe haemorrhages in the head and neck. Despite this, it was abandoned because to high patient mortality and morbidity. However, ECA ligation, a more selective branch of the carotid artery, has been popular for the same goal in recent decades due to the lack of or modest postsurgical problems compared to Transarterial embolization (TAE). However, a good surge seal pack, especially in the maxilla, is occasionally required to regulate both collateral circulation and backflow of blood from the internal carotid arteries distal to the carotid arteries (ICA). ECA ligation, on the other hand, might be a superior alternative for controlling life-threatening uncontrolled bleeding in this area. Author(S) Details Jachmen Sultana Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dhaka Dental College and Hospital, Bangladesh. Abul Bashar Department of Paediatrics, Comilla Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh.