Skip to main content

In-vitro Anti-Bacterial Activity of Extracts of Euphorbia abyssinica (Desert Candle) Stem-Bark and Latex | Chapter 13 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Introduction: Plants are a limitless gift of nature to humans and they possess very appreciative values and roles. They have stood the test of time in the life of man since creation. All over the world, they are hugely exploited for food, fuel, timber, medicine etc. The natural endowment of plants with numerous metabolites and bioactive compounds makes them good sources of therapeutic agents capable of replacing synthetic antibiotics; For example, Salversan and Penicillin are synthetic drugs formerly used for the treatment of Syphilis and Staphylococcus aureus infections, respectively, but which became less preferred because these pathogens developed resistance to the drugs.

Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating Euphorbia abyssinica (Desert Candle), a medicinal plant extensively used in folklore medicine among the Kendem people of South-west Cameroon for antibacterial activity and extracts analyzed for phytochemical composition.

Study Design: The completely randomized block design was used and data analyzed using of two way analysis of variance. Significant means were separated using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, between April 2011 and August 2012.

Methodology: Extraction was done using absolute methanol, 50% methanol (in water) and water as solvents. Qualitative analysis methods were used to assay the phytochemical constituents. Agar-well diffusion, macro broth dilution and agar dilution and time-kill assay were the susceptibility test methods adapted.

Results: The phytochemical constituents detected were alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates and steroids, and saponins. The 50% methanol extract of the stem-bark was highly active against Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared favorably with the Gentamycin control drug. The inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) obtained with 50% methanol extract measured 23 mm for S. aureus and 19 mm for P. aeruginosa compared to 18 mm achieved with the absolute methanol extract for both        S. aureus and P. aeniginosa. For the aqueous extract the overall IZD range of 10±1.60-13±2.16 mm. The susceptibility patterns obtained using both dilutions (agar and macro-broth) methods were similar to that obtained with the agar diffusion method above. S. aureus (with MIC, 10.93±1.00-; MBC, 25-mg/mL, agar dilution or MIC, 3.9±1.60 -, MBC, 12.5-mg/mL, macro broth dilution methods, respectively). It was considered to be the most significantly susceptible bacteria strain tested (significant mean value 3.933), while E. coli was the least susceptible (with MIC, 50±0.00-, MBC, 100-mg/mL, in the agar dilution; MIC, 25±0.00-, MBC, 50-mg/mL in the broth dilution and a significant mean value of 14.70). The stem-bark extracts was also significantly more active than the latex extracts P= .05 with significant mean values of 13.48 and 19.53 respectively. In the time-kill assay, all (100%) the organisms tested were killed by 50% methanol extract of E. abyssinica at concentrations equivalent to 1MIC- 4MIC.

Conclusion: E. abyssinica extracts showed considerable antibacterial activity against the bacterial species tested. These findings authenticate the folklore use of Euphorbia abyssinica for broad spectrum treatment of bacterial infections. The determination of the antimicrobial activity of Euphorbia abyssinica stem (bark and Latex extracts) extract included the 50% methanol, absolute methanol and aqueous extracts of these plant parts. The antimicrobial activity variously exhibited by the 50% methanol extracts of all the two plant parts tested, is significant. This is because it validates the popular traditional uses of dilute alcohol concoctions of medicinal plant preparations in ethno medicinal practice in south-West region of Cameroon. Secondly, the results indicated that these herbs used in traditional medicine have selective antimicrobial activities. Thus, the microorganisms which were susceptible to these extracts are those often associated with wound and ear infections, urinary and gastrointestinal tract infections as well as pyrexia of unknown origin. This explains the discriminate uses of these plants in the treatment of particular ailments. These findings provide evidence that E. abyssinica is a strong candidate in microgram concentrations while the plant extracts were effective in milligram concentrations. Therefore actual comparison between the control drugs and the extracts would await isolation, purification and determination of molar concentrations of the pure active ingredients of these plants extracts.

Author  Details:

Jacqueline Ebob Tarh
Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria.

Christian Ukwuoma Iroegbu
Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Empowerment and Leader Member Exchange towards Organizational Citizenship Behavior Readiness among Government Workforce in Malaysia | Book Publisher International

  State agencies are among the most significant entities that represent the public's needs, and their programmes are essential to a state's and the nation's economic growth and development. State agencies have been rife by public concerns for years, as demonstrated by the Public Complaints Bureau, as problems of inefficiency in service quality and delivery have yet to meet the public's standards. With the support of 15 employees from state agencies on Malaysia's east coast, this study aims to achieve three targets. The first and second objectives are to investigate the ties between leader-member exchange (LMX) and OCB empowerment. The final aim is to define the most significant factors that affect OCB willingness. A total of 288 people took part in the survey, which was conducted using a cluster sampling process. The survey items had achieved the necessary reliability, according to the pilot test results, and some sub-dimensions were renamed after factor analysis.

Re-asserting Cultural Perspectives: Old People and New Ideas in Bole Butake’s Lake God and The Survivors and Sankie Maimo’s Succession in Sarkov | Chapter 10 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 2

African cultures have undergone transformations from the colonial period to the present, often to the detriment of its cultural evolution and within the larger global community. As it were, colonial education subordinated African communalism and created in its place an anti-African spirit evident in the assimilation of western values. This did not only end up in a kind of cultural betrayal, but also posed as a serious threat to the dignity and identity of the people. Those who fall prey to this kind of cultural imperialism are the young people who are often irrationally carried away by western fashion and modes that they tend to neglect and/or forget their cultural ways of life as they join the race of “progress.” This situation has given rise to a conscious effort by creative writers to re-assert and protect African values while at the same time liberating themselves from the longstanding western effort at suppressing, controlling and dominating their thoughts particularly through n

The Utilization of Agro-Waste: A Nanobiotechnology Point of View | Chapter 10 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Aims: To review the utilization of agro-waste in the eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles and their biomedical, catalytic and industrial applications. Study Design: A review. Place and Duration of Study: This review was carried out in the interim of three weeks exploiting all relevant data, literature and publications where necessary. Methodology: Profound gathering of literatures/publications and reviews were employed with all carefulness and professional courtesy; enough useful information were gathered over time. The introduction emphasizes the dawn of science and technology, when great ideas were still latent later leading to the advent of history changing innovations like the completion of human genome and then the birth of nanotechnology. Although, nanotechnology had been known decades been popularized by Richard Feynman in his talks in the year 1959; and in this present dispensation, nanotechnology has been a solution to many intricate challenges/ t