Skip to main content

Maternal Risk Factors Predisposing to Congenital Heart Disease | Chapter 12 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Background: Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) are defined as malformations of the heart and great vessels that develop in utero which may manifest at birth or later in childhood. They can be caused by numerous genetic and environmental factors.  Genetic factors are nonmodifiable.  However, identification  of  modifiable  environmental  risk  factors  is  important  to  develop  population  based prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of CHD.

Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to find an association of the maternal lifestyles with CHD in new-borns. The secondary outcome of the study was to identify maternal factors that can be modified for the primary prevention of CHD.

Materials  and  Methods: This  prospective  study  involved  cardiovascular  system  examination  of newborns after delivery in term gestations in 1394 singleton pregnancies. The maternal risk factors considered were age, prepregnancy Body Mass Index  (BMI),  consanguineous  marriage,  caffeine intake, diabetes, stress and intake of periconceptional Folic acid tablets.

Results: In  this  study,  22  (1.58%)  out  of  1394  pregnancies  resulted  in  Congenital  Heart  Defects. Teenage pregnancy (p value= 0.0002), consanguineous marriage (p value=0.0004), overt diabetes mellitus (p value=0.0001), caffeine intake (p value=0.0031), prepregnancy BMI>24(p value=0.0001), maternal stress (p value<0.0001, history of previous congenital malformations (p value=0.004) and non intake of folic acid tablets in the first trimester (p value=0.0023 were found to be the most likely risk factor associated with CHD.

Conclusion: Community  education  programmes  should  be  initiated  in  the  high-risk  population  to prevent teenage pregnancies and consanguineous marriages.   Maternal counseling for periconceptional control of blood glucose, adequate weight maintenance, intake of folic acid tablets, avoidance of stress and caffeine is needed to prevent CHD. The results of numerous studies suggest that in reducing the incidence of CHD, public health strategy needs to focus on avoidance of teenage pregnancy and consanguineous marriages. Pregnancy associated with stress should be monitored more closely.  Prepregnancy  maternal  BMI,  coffee  intake  and  folic  acid  deficiency  have  to  be corrected. Maternal overt diabetes and hyperglycemia during pregnancy needs to be screened and managed timely to reduce the incidence of CHD.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Jayavelan Ramkumar
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and University, Chennai-600116, India.

Benjamin M. Sagayaraj
Department of Pediatrics, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Chennai-602105, India.

Dr. Nidhi Sharma
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Chennai-602105, India.


Comments

Popular posts from this blog

A Brief Study of Middleware Technologies: Programming Applications and Management Systems | Chapter 15 | Novel Research Aspects in Mathematical and Computer Science Vol. 1

  Many platforms, services, applications, hardware, and operating systems are connected through the middleware layer. Because the middleware layer abstracts much low-level complexity and makes applications and software systems portable, it allows disparate systems to interface and function together in harmony. Middleware technologies enable software engineers to swiftly construct software systems and applications, allowing developers to focus on more important tasks. This chapter examines several types of middleware systems and discusses middleware capabilities, middleware operation, middleware's function in cloud-based systems, and the best middleware platforms to use. Middleware systems are widely utilised and can be found in practically any software system or application. Middleware programmes provide as a link between many sorts of systems and protocols. They serve as a mechanism for various systems. To successfully exchange information, it runs on a variety of operating system

A Prospective Study about Safety and Efficacy of Perioperative Lidocaine Infusion | Chapter 09 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

 Opioids cause clinically significant side effects such as respiratory depression, immunosuppression, muscle rigidity, negative inotropism, nausea, vomiting, hyperalgesia, urine retention, postoperative ileus, and drowsiness. Perioperative opioids are a major contributor to the United States' and other countries' opioid epidemics. Non-opioid analgesics, particularly lidocaine, are becoming more common for perioperative use as a result of this. A total of 185 adult patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group I (105 patients) [fentanyl group] or group ii (80 patients) [opioid-free anaesthesia group]. Lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h infusion intraoperatively, and 1.5-2 mg/kg/h infusion for 2-8 hours postoperatively were given to patients in both groups at anaesthetic induction. Intraoperatively, both groups received analgesic adjuvants such as diclofenac 75 mg, paracetamol 1 gm, and mgso4 30-50 mg/kg. If the mean arterial pressure (map)

Ethnopharmacological Survey among Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) for the Management of Pathologies such as Malaria, ENT Diseases, Diarrhea, Typhoid Fever and Anemia | Chapter 05 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

 Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs) of Côte d'Ivoire are familiar with the therapeutic herbs. Medicinal plants have been shown to be useful in the treatment of common diseases such as malaria (KROA, 2004) and diabetes (N'GUESSAN et al, 2013) in several studies and scientific study. In the Abidjan District, the current policy is to integrate traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia into the national health system in order to improve population health coverage, particularly in the management of commonly encountered diseases such as malaria, ENT diseases, diarrhoea, typhoid fever, and anaemia. This research aims to increase the use of traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia in the national health system. Over the course of three months, fifty (50) PMTs in the District of Abidjan participated in this study. Plant therapists accounted for 30 of the 50 PMTs polled at the end of the study, or 60%. Traditional medicine centres use 61 types of medicinal plants from 36 famili