Skip to main content

Nosocomial Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa | Chapter 09 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

The history of nosocomial infections can be traced to the origin of hospitals themselves and have been defined by the WHO as infections that develop in a patient during his/her stay in a hospital or other types of clinical facilities which were not present at the time of admission. Nosocomial infections are a major public health problem globally and are on the increase despite efforts in hospital infection control measures and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Naturally, any micro-organism has the potential to cause infection in hospitalized patients however, only a few including Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococci, fungi and to a lesser extent, viruses and parasites are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infections. In sub-Saharan Africa, data available show that the incidence of nosocomial infections ranges from 2-49% with patients in intensive care units having the   highest rate ranging from 21.2-35.6%. The prevalence of nosocomial infections have  been reported  to vary  between 1.6%-28.7% in Burkina Faso, United Republic of Tanzania, Ghana, Mali, Cameroon, Gabon, Uganda, Burundi, Democratic republic of Congo and Senegal. In Nigeria and Ethiopia, the total accruing occurrence in surgical wards has been reported to vary from 5.7%-45.8% with the later having an incidence as high as 45.8% and an incidence density equal 26.7 infections per 1000 patient days in paediatric surgical patients. In addition, 3.4 -10.9% of hospital-associated infections often  result to mortality in most developed countries though these figures are suspected to be higher in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. However, simple and effective control programmes together with effective training of healthcare workers will go a long way in reducing the endemic nature of nosocomial infections in sub Saharan Africa. This paper highlights the natural history, distribution, risk factors of nosocomial infections especially in sub Saharan Africa as well as its contributory factors. Nosocomial infections are endemic in sub Saharan Africa and are further enhanced by emerging and re- emerging resistant agents. Simple and effective control programme together with computer-based epidemiological surveillance carried out as a global project with considerable inputs from developing countries for monitoring will enable the development of nosocomial infections to be halted if not eliminated. In addition, it is necessary to review the current infection control practices in all hospitals particularly in developing countries including Nigeria so as to incorporate molecular techniques which have been proven to be effective in keeping the spread of nosocomial infections under check. The training and re-training of health care givers on principles of infection control is strongly recommended. Also, the principles of infection control should be incorporated into student nurses, medical students, and other paramedical curriculum as well as employment of adequately competent health workers to avoid over labour which sometimes cause workers to be inefficient resulting in disease outbreaks. Finally, hand washing and other standard infection control practices should be adhered to so that nosocomial infections can be controlled effectively.

Author  Details:

Elizabeth N. Mbim
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.

Clement I. Mboto
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.

Bassey E. Agbo
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Consensus Summit: Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Aims: To issue a consensus statement on Lipids and Cardiovascular Health and the impact of their interrelationship in Nigerian Population. Study Design: Experts from a range of relevant disciplines, deliberated on different aspects of Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population at a Summit. Place and Duration of Study: The Summit was held in April 2016 at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. Methodology: Presentations were made on central themes after which expert participants split into four different groups to consider the questions relevant to different sub themes of the title. Consensus was arrived at, from presentations of groups at plenary. Conclusion: With the increase in the prevalence of NCDs, especially Cardiovascular Disease in Nigeria, and the documented evidence of deleterious effects of lipids, the expert panel called for an urgent need to advocate for the general public and health professionals to make heart-friendly

A Review on Gongronema latifolium, an Extremely Useful Plant with Great Prospects | Chapter 11 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Gongronema latifolium is a plant that has a wide range of nutritional and ethnomedical uses in different tropical African communities. Scientific reports on the chemical composition and bioactivity (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer and allelopathic properties) of the plant material by different authors are discussed in this review. Future prospects of the plant extracts in the areas of herbal formulations, food preservation, alcoholic fermentation and beer production, drug discovery and allelopathy are also highlighted. Author   Details: Olugbenga Morebise Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, All Saints University School of Medicine, Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica. Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/50/403/433-1 View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rabr/v3

An Overview of Ultrasonic Technology and Its Applications in Food Processing, Preservation and Quality Control | Chapter 03 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Ultrasound is one of the emerging technologies that were developed to minimize processing, maximize quality and ensure the safety of food products. In recent years, ultrasound technology has been used as an alternative processing option to conventional thermal approaches. Although Ultrasonication methods have been used for years in research and diagnostics, major advances have been made in the last decade. The applications for which high power ultrasound can be used range from existing processes that are enhanced by the retrofitting of high power ultrasonic technology, to the development of processes up to now not possible with conventional energy sources. The present paper reviews the generation, principle mechanism, properties, process parameters, applications, merits and demerits and future trends of the ultrasound technology in the food processing. Author(s) Details Er. Bogala Madhu Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MP