Skip to main content

Physicochemical Characterization and the Effect of Flow-Distance on Correlation between Chemical and Biochemical Oxygen Demands of Industrial Wastewaters | Chapter 05 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 3

This work was carried out to establish the effects of the activities of a cluster of industries in Jos-South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria, on the environmental quality of the industrial area. Some physicochemical parameters –temperature, pH, turbidity, suspended solids (SS), total solids (TS), total hardness, alkalinity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metals (Cu²⁺, Co²⁺, Fe²⁺& Zn²⁺),  phosphates,  nitrates,  sulphates  and  chlorides –of  the wastewaters  from  the  various  industries  were  investigated  using  standard  protocols.  Also,  the influence of flow-distance on the empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewaters was investigated. Wastewater samples were collected at point-sources and at 25, 50, 75 and 100m distances from the point-sources. Sampling was done twice a week for a full seasonal cycle at peak production period (morning and evening). The samples’ pH was adjusted to 7 using 0.5M acid for basic samples and 1.0M alkali for acidic samples, de-chlorinated using 0.0125M Na₂S₂O₃ and seeded when necessary and then diluted with de-ionized water. The ranges of the parameters were as follows: temperature: 22 –32°C, pH: 5.5 –10.4, SS: 0 –1,300  mg/L,  TS:  200 –1.400  mg/L,  sulphate:  0.37 –1.37  mg/L,  nitrites:  0.10 –1.09  mg/L  and phosphate: 14.80 –21.83 mg/L. The phosphate values, especially, were in excess of the maximum contamination limit specified by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and World Health Organization (WHO);  and  are  capable  of  triggering  eutrophication,which  will  in  turn  increase BOD/COD   values.  Concentrations  of  heavy  metals,  determined  by  Atomic   Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), ranged as follows: 0.07 –2.01 mg/L for Cu²⁺, 0.58 –3.27 mg/L for Fe²⁺, 0.01 –3.18 mg/L for Zn²⁺ and 0.11 –0.18 mg/L for Co²⁺ whose specified standard is not available. BOD₅ values ranged between 5.34 –25.88 mg/L while COD values ranged from 727.30 –8,308.66 mg/L.  Some BOD₅ values were in excess of the allowable limit while all COD values were observed to be very high. This implies an appreciable level of pollution exists here and recipient water bodies of these wastewaters are at  risk of being polluted. COD and BOD₅ of the wastewaters from different sources  highly  correlated  with  correlation  coefficients  ranging  0.9396-0.9985.  The  empirical correlation  between  COD  and  BOD₅ was  generally  maintained  despite  the  distance  of  flow  of  the wastewater from  point-source and contributions of washings from  farmlands  and other human activities i.e. the correlation between COD and BOD₅ for  wastewaters was not affected by flow distance. The correlation equations for the industries may, therefore, be used to deduce rapid effluent quality from chemical oxygen demand (COD) of sample from any point along the effluent flow path.

Author(s) Details

O. M. Myina
Department of Chemical Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria.

A. O. Lawal
Department of Applied Science, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.

B. M. Ajiga
Jehovah Nissi Boutique and Accessories, Lagos, Nigeria.

A. Edah
Department of Chemistry, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.


Comments

Popular posts from this blog

A Brief Study of Middleware Technologies: Programming Applications and Management Systems | Chapter 15 | Novel Research Aspects in Mathematical and Computer Science Vol. 1

  Many platforms, services, applications, hardware, and operating systems are connected through the middleware layer. Because the middleware layer abstracts much low-level complexity and makes applications and software systems portable, it allows disparate systems to interface and function together in harmony. Middleware technologies enable software engineers to swiftly construct software systems and applications, allowing developers to focus on more important tasks. This chapter examines several types of middleware systems and discusses middleware capabilities, middleware operation, middleware's function in cloud-based systems, and the best middleware platforms to use. Middleware systems are widely utilised and can be found in practically any software system or application. Middleware programmes provide as a link between many sorts of systems and protocols. They serve as a mechanism for various systems. To successfully exchange information, it runs on a variety of operating system

A Prospective Study about Safety and Efficacy of Perioperative Lidocaine Infusion | Chapter 09 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

 Opioids cause clinically significant side effects such as respiratory depression, immunosuppression, muscle rigidity, negative inotropism, nausea, vomiting, hyperalgesia, urine retention, postoperative ileus, and drowsiness. Perioperative opioids are a major contributor to the United States' and other countries' opioid epidemics. Non-opioid analgesics, particularly lidocaine, are becoming more common for perioperative use as a result of this. A total of 185 adult patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group I (105 patients) [fentanyl group] or group ii (80 patients) [opioid-free anaesthesia group]. Lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h infusion intraoperatively, and 1.5-2 mg/kg/h infusion for 2-8 hours postoperatively were given to patients in both groups at anaesthetic induction. Intraoperatively, both groups received analgesic adjuvants such as diclofenac 75 mg, paracetamol 1 gm, and mgso4 30-50 mg/kg. If the mean arterial pressure (map)

Ethnopharmacological Survey among Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) for the Management of Pathologies such as Malaria, ENT Diseases, Diarrhea, Typhoid Fever and Anemia | Chapter 05 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

 Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs) of Côte d'Ivoire are familiar with the therapeutic herbs. Medicinal plants have been shown to be useful in the treatment of common diseases such as malaria (KROA, 2004) and diabetes (N'GUESSAN et al, 2013) in several studies and scientific study. In the Abidjan District, the current policy is to integrate traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia into the national health system in order to improve population health coverage, particularly in the management of commonly encountered diseases such as malaria, ENT diseases, diarrhoea, typhoid fever, and anaemia. This research aims to increase the use of traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia in the national health system. Over the course of three months, fifty (50) PMTs in the District of Abidjan participated in this study. Plant therapists accounted for 30 of the 50 PMTs polled at the end of the study, or 60%. Traditional medicine centres use 61 types of medicinal plants from 36 famili