Skip to main content

Randle Cycle as Applied to Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 ‘Spruce the Basement before Dusting the Super-structure’ | Chapter: 2 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 1

Randle cycle (1963) is about substrate competition between products of glycolysis and β–oxidation to capture the citric acid cycle for further oxidation. Acetyl –CoA, the end product of both the energy metabolisms, when  accumulates in mitochondrial matrix beyond the oxidative capacity of the citric acid cycle, far-reaching consequences take place than simple substrate competition, inhibition of pyruvate  dehydrogenase(PDH),  inhibition  of  glycolysis  and  preferential  passage  of  β-oxidation products through citric acid cycle, as conceived by Randle. It is shown that citric acid cycle is equally shut off for both products of energy metabolism initially. Hence, the question of substrate competition between  them  does  not  arise.  How  the  preferential  passage  of  β-oxidation  products  occurs  is explained by a different mechanism than what Randle put forward. The final common pathway to either of β-oxidation or lipogenesis is-acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)-malonyl-CoA-CPT 1. The final result depends on whether ACC is stimulated or inhibited.Inhibition of ACC  results in β-oxidation and stimulation results in lipogenesis. Randle’s  contention that the low ATP status due to substrate  competitive inhibition , stimulates AMPK ,which results in initiation and perpetuation of β -oxidation   is not true because, simultaneously, AMPK is also inhibited which inhibits, in turn, the β -oxidation The proposed  hypothesis  suggests  that  low  substrate  for  ACC  i.e.  Plasma  acetyl-CoA,  which  is carboxylated  to  malonyl-CoA  is  responsible  for  the  switch  of  energy  metabolism  to  β-oxidation independent of AMPK. To corroborate the proposed mechanism, a low pyruvate level, an additional block in the glycolytic pathway at the  level of Pyruvate kinase (PK) and involvement of hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP shunt) are proposed with objective evidence, supporting the same.

Biography of author(s)

A. S. V. Prasad
Department of Internal Medicine, G.I.T.A.M Dental College, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam,Andhra Pradesh, India


Popular posts from this blog

Empowerment and Leader Member Exchange towards Organizational Citizenship Behavior Readiness among Government Workforce in Malaysia | Book Publisher International

  State agencies are among the most significant entities that represent the public's needs, and their programmes are essential to a state's and the nation's economic growth and development. State agencies have been rife by public concerns for years, as demonstrated by the Public Complaints Bureau, as problems of inefficiency in service quality and delivery have yet to meet the public's standards. With the support of 15 employees from state agencies on Malaysia's east coast, this study aims to achieve three targets. The first and second objectives are to investigate the ties between leader-member exchange (LMX) and OCB empowerment. The final aim is to define the most significant factors that affect OCB willingness. A total of 288 people took part in the survey, which was conducted using a cluster sampling process. The survey items had achieved the necessary reliability, according to the pilot test results, and some sub-dimensions were renamed after factor analysis.

Re-asserting Cultural Perspectives: Old People and New Ideas in Bole Butake’s Lake God and The Survivors and Sankie Maimo’s Succession in Sarkov | Chapter 10 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 2

African cultures have undergone transformations from the colonial period to the present, often to the detriment of its cultural evolution and within the larger global community. As it were, colonial education subordinated African communalism and created in its place an anti-African spirit evident in the assimilation of western values. This did not only end up in a kind of cultural betrayal, but also posed as a serious threat to the dignity and identity of the people. Those who fall prey to this kind of cultural imperialism are the young people who are often irrationally carried away by western fashion and modes that they tend to neglect and/or forget their cultural ways of life as they join the race of “progress.” This situation has given rise to a conscious effort by creative writers to re-assert and protect African values while at the same time liberating themselves from the longstanding western effort at suppressing, controlling and dominating their thoughts particularly through n

The Utilization of Agro-Waste: A Nanobiotechnology Point of View | Chapter 10 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Aims: To review the utilization of agro-waste in the eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles and their biomedical, catalytic and industrial applications. Study Design: A review. Place and Duration of Study: This review was carried out in the interim of three weeks exploiting all relevant data, literature and publications where necessary. Methodology: Profound gathering of literatures/publications and reviews were employed with all carefulness and professional courtesy; enough useful information were gathered over time. The introduction emphasizes the dawn of science and technology, when great ideas were still latent later leading to the advent of history changing innovations like the completion of human genome and then the birth of nanotechnology. Although, nanotechnology had been known decades been popularized by Richard Feynman in his talks in the year 1959; and in this present dispensation, nanotechnology has been a solution to many intricate challenges/ t