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Role of Atomic-Molecular Formations in Chemistry | Chapter 07 | Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 1

An important task of chemistry is to establish patterns of dependence on the property of substances on  its  composition  and  structure.  That  is,  any  link  of  atomic  and  molecular  formations  exhibit physicochemical properties depending on the given conditions,expressing structural and energetic correspondence as part of a material object. Consequently, the task set requires an in-depth study of the dependence on the micro-macroscopic properties of substances on the nature of its constituent elements with its specific characteristics as a whole. Separate consideration of the structural elements of the micro-macroscopic formation of this system without regard to their interaction, in many cases leads  to  a  distortion  of  reality.  At  the  same  time,  substances,  according  to  the  statements  of  M. Faraday,  continuously  make  energy  exchange  with  the  environment.  The  analysis  of  phase equilibrium carried out by G. Gibbs shows that the state of the system is described by thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, volume, chemical potential, etc.), changes in which determine the conditions  of  the  process.  The  process  is  characterized  by  transfer  of  energy  between  material objects to create work (chemical, mechanical, electrical, etc.) and physico-chemical manifestationsin the form of heat, light, etc. Identifying the mechanism of energy transfer, the nature of energy storage in  material  substances  is  not  well  understood.  For  the  rational  use  of  different  types  of  energy, fundamental research should be carried out, whichrequires specific scientific concepts and definitions in the field of atomic-molecular formations. In this question, there remains an inconsistency between individual  natural  sciences,  as  well  as  within  the  same  industry  in  the  interpretation  of  certain conceptual and terminological definitions of matters. “Chemical individual"represents the elementary lattice of a condensed substance or the minimum group of"chemical elements"connected in the form of  chemical,  metallic,  coordination  and  intermolecular  bonds,  which  determine  the  structure, composition  and  properties  of  this system.The  “chemical  individual"defines  the  mechanism  of macrostructure formation,i.e. is the source ofcertain chemical information that affects the structure of the final reaction products. The amount of a substance will allow one to study reactions using the chemical  formulas  of  the  reacting  substances,  to  compile  stoichiometric  and  kinetic  equations  in accordance with their "chemical equivalents". A chemical formula is a conditional notation depicting the elemental composition of a substance with the help of symbols of chemical elements. Because of the  identity  of the  elemental  composition of the "elementary  chemical  compound" and "substance" usually the  latter is called  a chemical  compound, not turning to the micro-macro levels  of material formations.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Bolysbek Utelbayev
Kazakh-British Technical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

E. N. Suleimenov
Kazakh-British Technical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

Utelbayeva Akmaral Bolysbekovna
State University named by M. Auezov, Kazakhstan.

Zhangabay Nurlan
State University named by M. Auezov, Kazakhstan.


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