Skip to main content

Toxicity Studies of the Extracts of Parkia biglobosa Stem Bark in Rats | Chapter 8 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 1

Extracts of Parkia biglobosa stem bark is used in Nigerian traditional medicine (NTM) to treat malaria, diarrhea and pains. To establish the toxicity profile of the medicine such parameters as the lethal dose (LD50) as well as effects on body functions and organs were evaluated in albino Wistar rats. The bioactive constituents of the water and methanol extracts were also evaluated as a link to toxicity. The LD50 was greater than 5000mg/kg per oral (p.o) for both extracts.  No significant (P< 0.05) changes in body weights and vital organs of treated animals. However, at 5000mg/kg of water extract, a significant  increase  in  relative  weight  of  the  kidneys  and  hyper -cholesterolemic  effects  were observed. The extract also elicited significant increase in blood glucose level. The kidneys and livers of animals treated with P. biglobosa water extract for 14 days revealed histopathological evidence of pathological lesions. The methanol extract did not show any changes in the levels of hepatic and hematological  parameters, histopathological evidence of  pathological lesions, and  serum level of urea, uric acid, bilirubin,  creatinine and total protein concentrations. Treatment elicited hypo -cholesterolemic effects and significant reduction in blood glucose level occurred in all the groups. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, cardiac glycosides, phenols  and reducing  sugars  in the  methanol extract,  the water  extract  showed the presence of similar constituents with the absence of flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. This study has shown the toxicity characteristics of the methanol and water extracts of the stem bark P. biglobosa in short time treatment with the extracts. This study has shown the diversity in toxicity as well as the chemical constituent of the stem barks of P. biglobosa in relation to the extraction solvent. However this study provides the basis for further study on the detailed toxic and pharmacological effects of the extracts of P. biglobosa stem bark and their active component(s).

Author(s) Details

Modupe Iretiola Builders
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria.

View Volume:


Popular posts from this blog

A Brief Study of Middleware Technologies: Programming Applications and Management Systems | Chapter 15 | Novel Research Aspects in Mathematical and Computer Science Vol. 1

  Many platforms, services, applications, hardware, and operating systems are connected through the middleware layer. Because the middleware layer abstracts much low-level complexity and makes applications and software systems portable, it allows disparate systems to interface and function together in harmony. Middleware technologies enable software engineers to swiftly construct software systems and applications, allowing developers to focus on more important tasks. This chapter examines several types of middleware systems and discusses middleware capabilities, middleware operation, middleware's function in cloud-based systems, and the best middleware platforms to use. Middleware systems are widely utilised and can be found in practically any software system or application. Middleware programmes provide as a link between many sorts of systems and protocols. They serve as a mechanism for various systems. To successfully exchange information, it runs on a variety of operating system

A Prospective Study about Safety and Efficacy of Perioperative Lidocaine Infusion | Chapter 09 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

 Opioids cause clinically significant side effects such as respiratory depression, immunosuppression, muscle rigidity, negative inotropism, nausea, vomiting, hyperalgesia, urine retention, postoperative ileus, and drowsiness. Perioperative opioids are a major contributor to the United States' and other countries' opioid epidemics. Non-opioid analgesics, particularly lidocaine, are becoming more common for perioperative use as a result of this. A total of 185 adult patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group I (105 patients) [fentanyl group] or group ii (80 patients) [opioid-free anaesthesia group]. Lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h infusion intraoperatively, and 1.5-2 mg/kg/h infusion for 2-8 hours postoperatively were given to patients in both groups at anaesthetic induction. Intraoperatively, both groups received analgesic adjuvants such as diclofenac 75 mg, paracetamol 1 gm, and mgso4 30-50 mg/kg. If the mean arterial pressure (map)

Scientific values of ECA Ligation | Chapter 06 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

  Previously, carotid artery ligation was done as an emergency procedure to stop severe haemorrhages in the head and neck. Despite this, it was abandoned because to high patient mortality and morbidity. However, ECA ligation, a more selective branch of the carotid artery, has been popular for the same goal in recent decades due to the lack of or modest postsurgical problems compared to Transarterial embolization (TAE). However, a good surge seal pack, especially in the maxilla, is occasionally required to regulate both collateral circulation and backflow of blood from the internal carotid arteries distal to the carotid arteries (ICA). ECA ligation, on the other hand, might be a superior alternative for controlling life-threatening uncontrolled bleeding in this area. Author(S) Details Jachmen Sultana Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dhaka Dental College and Hospital, Bangladesh. Abul Bashar Department of Paediatrics, Comilla Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh.