Skip to main content

Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies in Unvaccinated Rabies Occupational Risk Groups in Niger State, Nigeria | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: To determine the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) as well the potency of the rVNA in rabies occupational risk humans in Niger State of Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: Research was conducted at the Department of Veterinary Public Health, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and Rabies Unit, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, USA, between May, 2012 and March, 2013.


Materials and Methods: A total of 185 human volunteers were recruited from rabies risk occupational groups who filled a structured questionnaire on their previous bite history and vaccination status, between May and July, 2012. A 2 ml each of blood from volunteers was collected and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and sera separated into pre-labeled vacutainers. Standard Rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) was used to detect the presence of rVNA in the sera. Further end point titration of the rVNA positive human sera was conducted to determine the potency.

Results: The results indicated that, detectable titre of rVNA was recorded in 16.4% (23 of 140) viable human sera screened. Although from the questionnaire survey, 21.7% (5 out of the 23 positives) responded to have been vaccinated over ten years prior. At least 3 of the respondents (1 dog butcher and 2 dog meat consumers) who responded not previously vaccinated had some neutralizing antibody titre range of 0.65 – 0.7 IU/ml which is above the minimum protective titre (0.5IU/ml) recommended by WHO. Similarly, 3 respondents (2 veterinarians and 1 animal health personnel) who responded to have been previously vaccinated (> 10 years earlier) yet had a high titre range of 0.5 – 5.4IU/ml. The highest specific rate for rVNA of 25% each was seen amongst the dog butchers and pet owners followed by hunters (20%) and dog meat consumers (14.8%). Up to 125 (67.6%) of the volunteers do consume dog meat with only 12 (9.6%) of them being dog butchers who source dogs for slaughter from households within and outside their territories.

Conclusion: Although the WHO minimum protective titre of rVNA is 0.5 IU/ml, the presence of relatively high titres amongst these risk groups in this report is an indication of a serious public health threat. This study recommends the vaccination of rabies high risk groups and further screening of rabies occupational risk and non risk groups in the study area and Nigeria at large. This study concludes that there is serological evidence of rVNA in the serum of vaccinated and unvaccinated rabies occupational risk groups in Nigeria. Rabies occupational risk groups are at risk of contracting rabies without overt symptoms of rabies, but serological response with some reasonable titres that may or may not be protective.

Author(s) Details

Dr.  A. Garba
Diagnostics and Extension Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

A Brief Study of Middleware Technologies: Programming Applications and Management Systems | Chapter 15 | Novel Research Aspects in Mathematical and Computer Science Vol. 1

  Many platforms, services, applications, hardware, and operating systems are connected through the middleware layer. Because the middleware layer abstracts much low-level complexity and makes applications and software systems portable, it allows disparate systems to interface and function together in harmony. Middleware technologies enable software engineers to swiftly construct software systems and applications, allowing developers to focus on more important tasks. This chapter examines several types of middleware systems and discusses middleware capabilities, middleware operation, middleware's function in cloud-based systems, and the best middleware platforms to use. Middleware systems are widely utilised and can be found in practically any software system or application. Middleware programmes provide as a link between many sorts of systems and protocols. They serve as a mechanism for various systems. To successfully exchange information, it runs on a variety of operating system

A Prospective Study about Safety and Efficacy of Perioperative Lidocaine Infusion | Chapter 09 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

 Opioids cause clinically significant side effects such as respiratory depression, immunosuppression, muscle rigidity, negative inotropism, nausea, vomiting, hyperalgesia, urine retention, postoperative ileus, and drowsiness. Perioperative opioids are a major contributor to the United States' and other countries' opioid epidemics. Non-opioid analgesics, particularly lidocaine, are becoming more common for perioperative use as a result of this. A total of 185 adult patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group I (105 patients) [fentanyl group] or group ii (80 patients) [opioid-free anaesthesia group]. Lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h infusion intraoperatively, and 1.5-2 mg/kg/h infusion for 2-8 hours postoperatively were given to patients in both groups at anaesthetic induction. Intraoperatively, both groups received analgesic adjuvants such as diclofenac 75 mg, paracetamol 1 gm, and mgso4 30-50 mg/kg. If the mean arterial pressure (map)

A Case Report on Delayed Diagnosis of Glioblastoma | Chapter 07 | New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 8

  The clinical and radiological indications of a concomitant tumour may be hidden by the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. The goal of this study is to raise awareness about the dangers of delayed diagnosis by recounting the case of a patient who had a subarachnoid haemorrhage that hid the presence of a glioblastoma for several months. Only a few similar cases have been recorded in the literature: The therapy of two recent severe neurosurgical illnesses is discussed in this article. Author(S) Details Gabriele Ronchetti Department of Neurosurgery, Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, ASL Cittá di Torino, Italy. Carlo Giussani Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano Bicocca, via Pergolesi 33, 20900, Monza, Italy. View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NHMMR-V8/article/view/6645