Skip to main content

Hunger Diarrhoea and the Enterocyte Chloride Ion Secretion Paradigm | Chapter 01 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 5

Enhanced secretion of fluid in starvation has been proposed to worsen any fluid secretion that is already occurring after exposure of the intestine to enterotoxins. The evidence for this is that historical accounts of imposed fasting in civil or military circumstances are associated with fatalities that arise from secretory diarrhoeal disease. In addition, there is also experimental work apparently showing that secretion is enhanced during short term starvation. In experimental animals exposed to fasting and bacterial enterotoxin, the short-circuit current increase on toxin exposure, assumed to represent fluid secretion, is always greater in the animal intestine exposed to E. coli heat stable STa enterotoxin.

Attention is drawn to the fact that human volunteers in a laboratory setting do not develop diarrhoea on fasting. They do develop a reduction in circulating blood volume consistent with lower than usual blood pressure and hypovolaemia. More detailed examination of the well documented historical accounts of sieges and civil forms of enforced starvation confirms the cardiovascular changes but evidence of secretion i.e. diarrhoea, only occurs when contaminated water is exploited or is the sole source of fluid and personal hygiene is problematical. In human situations in which salt is provided, the incidence of diarrhoeal disease is intermittent but with salt deprivation, the incidence increases. Polydipsia is a consistent feature of persistent starvation and it can be assumed that this is a response to the hypovolaemia.

The evidence from short-circuit current studies in fasted experimental animals is reviewed. A close examination of these studies indicates that increases in short-circuit current are unlikely to rep-resent chloride ion section. An alternative explanation is given of enhanced but electrogenic sodium ion uptake in response to the shrinkage in blood volume which cannot be restored by drinking water alone. Evidence from isotope studies has shown that fasting in animals increases sodium ion uptake as well as short-circuit current, making it likely that fasting causes electrogenic sodium ion absorption. Earlier data on the effect of diuretics makes it likely that what has been studied is the involvement of compensatory electrogenic sodium ion absorption and its interruption by certain diuretics. The recent siting of the NKCC2 transporter in the intestinal brush border makes this a viable alternative explanation for the changes in ion currents seen in starvation. There are therefore no compelling reasons for assuming that fasting enhances secretion in man or in animals or that bacterial enterotoxins cause secretion that is exacerbated by starvation.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Michael L. Lucas
University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/135

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Empowerment and Leader Member Exchange towards Organizational Citizenship Behavior Readiness among Government Workforce in Malaysia | Book Publisher International

  State agencies are among the most significant entities that represent the public's needs, and their programmes are essential to a state's and the nation's economic growth and development. State agencies have been rife by public concerns for years, as demonstrated by the Public Complaints Bureau, as problems of inefficiency in service quality and delivery have yet to meet the public's standards. With the support of 15 employees from state agencies on Malaysia's east coast, this study aims to achieve three targets. The first and second objectives are to investigate the ties between leader-member exchange (LMX) and OCB empowerment. The final aim is to define the most significant factors that affect OCB willingness. A total of 288 people took part in the survey, which was conducted using a cluster sampling process. The survey items had achieved the necessary reliability, according to the pilot test results, and some sub-dimensions were renamed after factor analysis.

The Utilization of Agro-Waste: A Nanobiotechnology Point of View | Chapter 10 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Aims: To review the utilization of agro-waste in the eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles and their biomedical, catalytic and industrial applications. Study Design: A review. Place and Duration of Study: This review was carried out in the interim of three weeks exploiting all relevant data, literature and publications where necessary. Methodology: Profound gathering of literatures/publications and reviews were employed with all carefulness and professional courtesy; enough useful information were gathered over time. The introduction emphasizes the dawn of science and technology, when great ideas were still latent later leading to the advent of history changing innovations like the completion of human genome and then the birth of nanotechnology. Although, nanotechnology had been known decades been popularized by Richard Feynman in his talks in the year 1959; and in this present dispensation, nanotechnology has been a solution to many intricate challenges/ t

Re-asserting Cultural Perspectives: Old People and New Ideas in Bole Butake’s Lake God and The Survivors and Sankie Maimo’s Succession in Sarkov | Chapter 10 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 2

African cultures have undergone transformations from the colonial period to the present, often to the detriment of its cultural evolution and within the larger global community. As it were, colonial education subordinated African communalism and created in its place an anti-African spirit evident in the assimilation of western values. This did not only end up in a kind of cultural betrayal, but also posed as a serious threat to the dignity and identity of the people. Those who fall prey to this kind of cultural imperialism are the young people who are often irrationally carried away by western fashion and modes that they tend to neglect and/or forget their cultural ways of life as they join the race of “progress.” This situation has given rise to a conscious effort by creative writers to re-assert and protect African values while at the same time liberating themselves from the longstanding western effort at suppressing, controlling and dominating their thoughts particularly through n