Skip to main content

Bioinformatics Based Investigation on the Assortment of Industrially Accessible Azodyes with Azoreductase Enzyme of Pseudomonas putida | Chapter 9 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Azo dyes are the most widely applied chemical dyes that have also raised great concerns for environmental contamination and human health issues. There has been an increased interest in discovering new novel bioremediation strategies to degrade azo dyes for environmental issues and also economic purposes. Azoreductase are key enzymes evolved in nature capable of degrading the azo dyes. As azoreductase enzyme is a key enzyme in degrading these azo dyes, they are good and potential candidates for industrial wastewater treatment and environmental restoration. The initial critical step of reduction of azo bond during the metabolism of azo dyes is catalysed by a group of NADH and FAD dependant enzyme called azoreductase. Although several azoreductase have been identified from microorganisms and partially characterized, very little is known about the structural basis of the substrate specificity and the nature of catalysis. Azoreductase enzyme of Pseudomonas putida has a wider broad spectrum of substrate specificity and capable of degrading a wide variety of azo dyes. In the present study, the crystal structure of the enzyme from PDB and 10 azo dyes from NCBI PubChem compound were retrieved and their interactions were studied. These azo dyes were then docked with the FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase enzyme to analyse the binding affinity of the azo dyes with the enzyme and predict the catalytic sites. Consequently, the catalytic residues of FMN-dependent and NADH dependent enzyme were then analysed in terms of properties including function, hydrogen bonding and flexibility. The results suggest that Ala-114, Phe-172 and Glu-174 play a predominant role as catalytic site residues in the enzyme. Furthermore, the approach emphasis on predicting the active sites of this enzyme where substrates can bind in order to give a better understanding of the biodegradation of some of the commercially important azodyes mediated by azoreductase. These results will pave way for further increase in azoreductase activity and for better understanding of the dye degradation pathway. In addition to it, the different types of azo reductases can be further biochemically characterized for their novelty in near future.
Author(s) Details

Mr. Bikash Thakuria
Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biotechnology, St. Edmund’s College, Shillong – 793003, Meghalaya, India.

Dr. Samrat Adhikari
Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biotechnology, St. Edmund’s College, Shillong – 793003, Meghalaya, India
View Book -


Popular posts from this blog

Consensus Summit: Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Aims: To issue a consensus statement on Lipids and Cardiovascular Health and the impact of their interrelationship in Nigerian Population. Study Design: Experts from a range of relevant disciplines, deliberated on different aspects of Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population at a Summit. Place and Duration of Study: The Summit was held in April 2016 at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. Methodology: Presentations were made on central themes after which expert participants split into four different groups to consider the questions relevant to different sub themes of the title. Consensus was arrived at, from presentations of groups at plenary. Conclusion: With the increase in the prevalence of NCDs, especially Cardiovascular Disease in Nigeria, and the documented evidence of deleterious effects of lipids, the expert panel called for an urgent need to advocate for the general public and health professionals to make heart-friendly

A Review on Gongronema latifolium, an Extremely Useful Plant with Great Prospects | Chapter 11 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Gongronema latifolium is a plant that has a wide range of nutritional and ethnomedical uses in different tropical African communities. Scientific reports on the chemical composition and bioactivity (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer and allelopathic properties) of the plant material by different authors are discussed in this review. Future prospects of the plant extracts in the areas of herbal formulations, food preservation, alcoholic fermentation and beer production, drug discovery and allelopathy are also highlighted. Author   Details: Olugbenga Morebise Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, All Saints University School of Medicine, Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica. Read full article: View Volume:

An Overview of Ultrasonic Technology and Its Applications in Food Processing, Preservation and Quality Control | Chapter 03 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Ultrasound is one of the emerging technologies that were developed to minimize processing, maximize quality and ensure the safety of food products. In recent years, ultrasound technology has been used as an alternative processing option to conventional thermal approaches. Although Ultrasonication methods have been used for years in research and diagnostics, major advances have been made in the last decade. The applications for which high power ultrasound can be used range from existing processes that are enhanced by the retrofitting of high power ultrasonic technology, to the development of processes up to now not possible with conventional energy sources. The present paper reviews the generation, principle mechanism, properties, process parameters, applications, merits and demerits and future trends of the ultrasound technology in the food processing. Author(s) Details Er. Bogala Madhu Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MP